Hormones and Homeostasis Flashcards Preview

GCSE Biology > Hormones and Homeostasis > Flashcards

Flashcards in Hormones and Homeostasis Deck (43):
1

What is the endocrine system made up of?

Glands that secrete hormones directly into the bloodstream

2

What are hormones?

Chemical messengers that are carried in blood to target organs

3

What are the 2 differences between endocrine and nervous system?

1) Slower than effects of nervous system
2) Act for longer

4

Where is the pituitary gland and what is it classed as?

In the brain, the 'master gland'

5

What doe some of the hormones it releases do?

Stimulate the release of other hormones

6

Where is adrenaline produced?

Adrenal gland

7

When is adrenaline produced?

In times or fear or stress

8

What is the effect of adrenaline?

Increases the heart rate, boosting the delivery of oxygen and glucose

9

Why is adrenaline produced?

To prepare the body for fight or flight

10

Where is thyroxine produced?

Thyroid gland

11

What does thyroxine do?

Increases the metabolic rate

12

What does thyroxine control?

Growth and development in young animals

13

How is thyroxine controlled?

By negative feedback

14

Where do enzymes come from and go to?

From glands and pass into tubes called ducts

15

What are endocrine glands?

Ductless glands, because hormones pass into blood

16

What does the pancreas control?

Blood glucose concentration

17

If the blood glucose level is too high...

1) Pancreas releases more insulin
2) Insulin causes glucose to move from blood into cells
3) In liver and muscle cells, excess glucose converted into glycogen for storage

18

If blood glucose level is too low...

1) Pancreas releases glucagon
2) Glucagon stimulates glycogen to be converted back into glucose and released into blood

19

What is the control of blood glucose an example of?

Negative feedback

20

What is type one diabetes caused by?

Pancreas failing to produce enough insulin

21

What does type one diabetes cause?

Uncontrolled high blood glucose levels

22

How is type one diabetes treated?

Insulin injections

23

What is type two diabetes caused by?

Body cells no longer responding to insulin

24

What is one risk factor of type two diabetes?

Obesity

25

How is type two diabetes treated?

Controlled diet and regular exercise

26

When does water leave the body?

From the lungs during breathing

27

How does water leave the body?

Through skin in sweat and in urine

28

If the concentration of the blood changes...

Body cells will gain too much water by osmosis

29

What does the kidney regulate?

Balance of water and ions

30

What do the kidneys excrete?

Urea

31

What is urea?

A waste product that is produced by the liver from the breakdown of protiens

32

What does the digestion of proteins from food result in?

Excess amino acids

33

What happens to the excess amino acids?

Converted into ammonia by demination by the liver

34

Why is ammonia converted to urea and sent to kidneys?

It is toxic

35

How do kidneys produce urine?

1) Filtering the blood
2) Selective re absorption of useful substances e.g. glucose, ions and water
3) Leaves urea and excess water and ions to form urine

36

Where does the production of urine take place?

In tiny tubes in the kidneys called tubules

37

What controls water level

The hormone ADH

38

When is ADH released?

When blood is too concentrated

39

What releases ADH?

The pituitary gland

40

What does ADH cause?

More water to be reabsorbed into the blood

41

Where does ADH pass in?

The blood to the kidney tubules

42

What 2 ways can kidney failure be treated?

1) Organ transplant
2) Kidney dialysis

43

What does a dialysis machine do?

Takes over the role, removing waste products from the blood 3 times a week