Hovorka - Cell Structure and Function 1, 2 and 3 Flashcards Preview

MCBM Part 1 > Hovorka - Cell Structure and Function 1, 2 and 3 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Hovorka - Cell Structure and Function 1, 2 and 3 Deck (90):
1

What is Histology the study of?

the anatomical study of the microscopic structure of tissues

2

What is Cytology the study of?

Cell and its component parts

3

Names the 4 Imaging Modalities

Naked eye, Light Microscope, SEM and TEM

4

If a typical tissue is fixed and sectioned, what is their size?

5 to 50 micron thick slices

5

What is the most common stain?

Hemotoxylin-eosin stain

6

Hemotoxylin is deep purple in color, what 3 structures does it stain?

1. Heterochromatin
2. Nuclei
3. Ribosomal RNA

7

Hemotoxylin stains structure that are ________philic

Baso - philic

8

Is Eosin a basic or acidic stain?

Acidic

9

Does Hemotoxylin have a high pH or a low pH?

Higher. It is a basic staining agent

10

What is the color of Eosin?

pink to red in color

11

Eosin stains what structure?

Cytoplasm

12

Cytoplasm, is it considered to be basophilic or eosinophilic?

Eosinophillic aka acidophillic

13

What is the full name for SEM?

Scanning Electron Microscopy

14

Whats is the full name for TEM?

Transmitting Electron Microscopy

15

What is one of the electron microscopy system that requires extreme cold temperatures and striking the specimen instead of slicing?

Freeze-Fracturing. Liquid Nitrogen can be used.

16

Freeze Fracturing reveals what type of membrane?

The Interior of the plasma membrane

17

PAS (Periodic acid-Schiff) staining detects?

Carbohydrates

18

Enzyme histochemistry is used to detect?

Presence of an enzyme

19

Acid Phosphatase reaction detects the presence of?

Phosphatase enzymes

20

Immunohistochemical staining uses dyes bound to antibodies to detect?

Antigens

21

Name the 4 main types of tissues in humans

1. Epithelium
2. Connective Tissue
3. Nervous Tissue
4. Muscle Tissue

22

What lines body cavities and forms glands?

Epithelium

23

Myosin and Actin are both tributaries of what?

Muscle tissue

24

Name the 3 types of Muscle tissue

Skeletal, Cardiac and Smooth

25

What type of tissue displays associated support cells and neurons?

Nervous Tissue

26

Cells consist of a cytoplasmic matrix but is surrounded by what type of membrane?

Plasma membrane (plasmalemma)

27

Cells are supported by what type of structure?

Cytoskeleton

28

Name 5 items that compose the matrix of the cytoplasm?

Water, enzymes, ions, macromolecules and dissolved gases.

29

How much percent is the approx. lipid composition within a membrane?

50%

30

What have Polar-Hydrophilic head and an uncharged-hydrophobic tail?

Membrane Phospholipids

31

The heads of the phospholipid by layer,are the heads hydrophilic or hydrophobic?

Hydrophillic. Thus creating a hydrophobic interior

32

How thick is the lipid bilayer?

7nm thick

33

What is the distance between the polar heads?

3nm

34

What are the 3 functions of membrane proteins?

1. Transporter
2. Receptors
3. Structural anchors

35

What type of proteins span the hydrophobic region of the lipid bilayer?

Integral Membrane Proteins

36

What type of proteins bind to the hydrophilic heads of the membrane lipids?

Peripheral Proteins

37

Who can strip proteins, other than Matt Moraton?

Salts or chelating agents. JK Matt!

38

Can Glycolipids be modified by the addition of salts?

No.

39

Can Glycolipids be modified by the additions of sugars?

Absolutley

40

Carbs that extend from the extracellular surface of the membrane form what?

Glycocalyx of the cell.

41

In the Plasma Membrane, can Cholestrol be incorporated?

YES!

42

What is the site of storage of DNA?

The nucleus

43

Nuclear envelope surrounds what membrane?

Nucleus

44

What kind of membrane is the nuclear envelope?

Double lipid bilayer membrane

45

The outer lipid bilayer membrane is continous with what organelle?

RER (Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum)

46

Is the inner surface of the nuclear envelope lined with lamins?

Yes, bind the membrane and provide structural support

47

The nuclear envelope has thousands of what kind of pores?

Nuclear Pores

48

What is bound by DNA with histones and other proteins?

Chromatin

49

Is hetreochromatin active or inactive?

inactive

50

Euchromatin is also DNA, but can it stain?

Yes, it is lightly stained by Eosin

51

Where is rRNA transcribed?

nucleolus

52

What is the area, a chromosome occupies, called?

Chromosomal Territory

53

Name the 4 functions of the cytoskeleton

1. Determines shape
2. Provides support
3. Its organelles creates movement
4. Facilitates the transport of organelles throughout the cell

54

Name the 3 cytoskeletal systems that utilize different sets of cytoskeletal filaments.

1. Actin cytoskeleton (thin filaments) - Maintains shape and movement

2.Microtubules- Organelle movement
3.Intermediate Filaments - provide strength to the cytoskeleton.

55

What is the process called when Ribosomes synthesize protein from mRNA that was transcribed in the nucleus?

Translation

56

How large is a ribosome?

20nm and can be seen by electron microscope

57

Are Ribosomes acidophillic or basophillic?

Basophillic

58

Free Ribsomes are located in which 2 areas?

Within the Mitochondrial Matrix and Cytoplasm

59

What happens to proteins which function in the cytoplasm, nucleus and peroxisomes?

Synthesized by Free ribosomes

60

What organelle is directly involved with lipid synthesis of lipid sysnthesis?

Smooth ER

61

What organelle is involved with the synthesis of protein synthesis?

Rough ER

62

What organelle is membrane bound and is a series of flattened vesicles?

Golgi Apparatus

63

What kind of Golgi cisternae transport vesicles between RER?

CIS-cisternae

64

Which type of Golgi cisternae is involved with sorting and packaging?

TRANS-Cisternae

65

What organelle is involved with digestion of material take up from the cell?

Lysosomes

66

When there is a malfunction in lysosomes, what is one kind of disease it can lead to?

Tay-Sach's disease - Undigested material which continues to accumulate within the cell

67

What type of lysosome are awaiting substrates for digestion?

Primary

68

What type of lysosomes are in the process of digestion?

Secondary

69

What type of granules are filled with undigested material?

Lipofuscion

70

What type of vesicles are involved in the release of neurotransmitters?

Secretory Vesicles

71

What type of secretion is involved in the default pathway of the Golgi appartus?

Constituative secretion

72

What organelle is known as the primary sources of ATP for the cell

Mito-....... wait for it....... -chondria (MC)

73

Do new mitochondria originate from old mitochondria?

Yes it does.

74

Does the Outer Mitochondrial membrane seperate the inner membrane space from the cytoplasm?

Yes it does......would I lie to you???

75

What are the folds within the Mitochondria called?

Cristae

76

Where does the TCA and beta oxidation of fatty acids occur?

Mitochondrial matrix, located withing the mitochondrial membrane.

77

What do peroxisomes contain? Its either oxygen or CO2.

Oxygen

78

Humans have how many chromosomes?

23

79

Name the 3 phases of Interphase.

1. G1
2. S-phase
3. G2

80

What phase does the cell duplicate its DNA?

S phase

81

Which phase grow and synthesizes protein needed for DNA synthesis?

G1

82

Repairing of DNA occurs during this phase.

G2

83

How long does mitosis last?

1 hour

84

How many phases does Mitosis have?

4

85

Name the phases of Mitosis.

1. Prophase
2. Metaphase
3. Anaphase
4. Telophase

86

What phase do the chromosomes condense for Mitosis?

Prophase

87

What phase does the nuclear envelop reform during Mitosis

Telophase

88

What phase during mitosis do the centrioles duplicate?

Prophase

89

During what Mitosis phase do the chromatids get pulled towards the MOTCs at opposite poles of the cell?

Anaphase

90

What phase do chromosomes decondense and Nucleoli reappear during Mitosis?

Telophase