Flashcards in Hovorka - Cell Structure and Function 1, 2 and 3 Deck (90):
What is Histology the study of?
the anatomical study of the microscopic structure of tissues
What is Cytology the study of?
Cell and its component parts
Names the 4 Imaging Modalities
Naked eye, Light Microscope, SEM and TEM
If a typical tissue is fixed and sectioned, what is their size?
5 to 50 micron thick slices
What is the most common stain?
Hemotoxylin is deep purple in color, what 3 structures does it stain?
3. Ribosomal RNA
Hemotoxylin stains structure that are ________philic
Baso - philic
Is Eosin a basic or acidic stain?
Does Hemotoxylin have a high pH or a low pH?
Higher. It is a basic staining agent
What is the color of Eosin?
pink to red in color
Eosin stains what structure?
Cytoplasm, is it considered to be basophilic or eosinophilic?
Eosinophillic aka acidophillic
What is the full name for SEM?
Scanning Electron Microscopy
Whats is the full name for TEM?
Transmitting Electron Microscopy
What is one of the electron microscopy system that requires extreme cold temperatures and striking the specimen instead of slicing?
Freeze-Fracturing. Liquid Nitrogen can be used.
Freeze Fracturing reveals what type of membrane?
The Interior of the plasma membrane
PAS (Periodic acid-Schiff) staining detects?
Enzyme histochemistry is used to detect?
Presence of an enzyme
Acid Phosphatase reaction detects the presence of?
Immunohistochemical staining uses dyes bound to antibodies to detect?
Name the 4 main types of tissues in humans
2. Connective Tissue
3. Nervous Tissue
4. Muscle Tissue
What lines body cavities and forms glands?
Myosin and Actin are both tributaries of what?
Name the 3 types of Muscle tissue
Skeletal, Cardiac and Smooth
What type of tissue displays associated support cells and neurons?
Cells consist of a cytoplasmic matrix but is surrounded by what type of membrane?
Plasma membrane (plasmalemma)
Cells are supported by what type of structure?
Name 5 items that compose the matrix of the cytoplasm?
Water, enzymes, ions, macromolecules and dissolved gases.
How much percent is the approx. lipid composition within a membrane?
What have Polar-Hydrophilic head and an uncharged-hydrophobic tail?
The heads of the phospholipid by layer,are the heads hydrophilic or hydrophobic?
Hydrophillic. Thus creating a hydrophobic interior
How thick is the lipid bilayer?
What is the distance between the polar heads?
What are the 3 functions of membrane proteins?
3. Structural anchors
What type of proteins span the hydrophobic region of the lipid bilayer?
Integral Membrane Proteins
What type of proteins bind to the hydrophilic heads of the membrane lipids?
Who can strip proteins, other than Matt Moraton?
Salts or chelating agents. JK Matt!
Can Glycolipids be modified by the addition of salts?
Can Glycolipids be modified by the additions of sugars?
Carbs that extend from the extracellular surface of the membrane form what?
Glycocalyx of the cell.
In the Plasma Membrane, can Cholestrol be incorporated?
What is the site of storage of DNA?
Nuclear envelope surrounds what membrane?
What kind of membrane is the nuclear envelope?
Double lipid bilayer membrane
The outer lipid bilayer membrane is continous with what organelle?
RER (Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum)
Is the inner surface of the nuclear envelope lined with lamins?
Yes, bind the membrane and provide structural support
The nuclear envelope has thousands of what kind of pores?
What is bound by DNA with histones and other proteins?
Is hetreochromatin active or inactive?
Euchromatin is also DNA, but can it stain?
Yes, it is lightly stained by Eosin
Where is rRNA transcribed?
What is the area, a chromosome occupies, called?
Name the 4 functions of the cytoskeleton
1. Determines shape
2. Provides support
3. Its organelles creates movement
4. Facilitates the transport of organelles throughout the cell
Name the 3 cytoskeletal systems that utilize different sets of cytoskeletal filaments.
1. Actin cytoskeleton (thin filaments) - Maintains shape and movement
2.Microtubules- Organelle movement
3.Intermediate Filaments - provide strength to the cytoskeleton.
What is the process called when Ribosomes synthesize protein from mRNA that was transcribed in the nucleus?
How large is a ribosome?
20nm and can be seen by electron microscope
Are Ribosomes acidophillic or basophillic?
Free Ribsomes are located in which 2 areas?
Within the Mitochondrial Matrix and Cytoplasm
What happens to proteins which function in the cytoplasm, nucleus and peroxisomes?
Synthesized by Free ribosomes
What organelle is directly involved with lipid synthesis of lipid sysnthesis?
What organelle is involved with the synthesis of protein synthesis?
What organelle is membrane bound and is a series of flattened vesicles?
What kind of Golgi cisternae transport vesicles between RER?
Which type of Golgi cisternae is involved with sorting and packaging?
What organelle is involved with digestion of material take up from the cell?
When there is a malfunction in lysosomes, what is one kind of disease it can lead to?
Tay-Sach's disease - Undigested material which continues to accumulate within the cell
What type of lysosome are awaiting substrates for digestion?
What type of lysosomes are in the process of digestion?
What type of granules are filled with undigested material?
What type of vesicles are involved in the release of neurotransmitters?
What type of secretion is involved in the default pathway of the Golgi appartus?
What organelle is known as the primary sources of ATP for the cell
Mito-....... wait for it....... -chondria (MC)
Do new mitochondria originate from old mitochondria?
Yes it does.
Does the Outer Mitochondrial membrane seperate the inner membrane space from the cytoplasm?
Yes it does......would I lie to you???
What are the folds within the Mitochondria called?
Where does the TCA and beta oxidation of fatty acids occur?
Mitochondrial matrix, located withing the mitochondrial membrane.
What do peroxisomes contain? Its either oxygen or CO2.
Humans have how many chromosomes?
Name the 3 phases of Interphase.
What phase does the cell duplicate its DNA?
Which phase grow and synthesizes protein needed for DNA synthesis?
Repairing of DNA occurs during this phase.
How long does mitosis last?
How many phases does Mitosis have?
Name the phases of Mitosis.
What phase do the chromosomes condense for Mitosis?
What phase does the nuclear envelop reform during Mitosis
What phase during mitosis do the centrioles duplicate?
During what Mitosis phase do the chromatids get pulled towards the MOTCs at opposite poles of the cell?