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What are the dates of Queen Elizabeth I's reign?



When was the gunpowder plot?

1605- it aimed to depose James I.


Give a quote which emphasises the centrality of the Bible in protestantism.

William Chillingworth said that "The Bible is the religion of Protestants"


Identify change and continuity between Catholic England and Protestant England

Church interiors- churches are commanded to "return how they were in Edward's time" but this is very vague
as Edward's reign got more conservative as he went along. The Royal Proclamation of 1561 ordered that the Royal Coat of Arms be placed on the rood screen where a cross would once have been placed; Susan Doran and Christopher Durston argue that this was ‘a striking visual symbol of the English Church’s subordination to the Crown
-Shift from the visual to the spoken
Religious art continued, but it shifted from the official church sphere to the domestic sphere- Eg: Bess of Hardwick's painted cloths showing the life of St Paul
Hierarchical structure of Bishops and Priests etc


What were St Paul's instructions to the Corinthians regarding church services?

That they should be "DECENT, ORDERLY and EDIFYING."


What was the Vestiarian controversy?

In 1563, 20 Protestant clergy demand that they should be exempt from wearing vestments like the surplice.


How personally Catholic/ Protestant was Queen Elizabeth I?

The fact that she kept a crucifix and candles in the Chapel Royal against the advice of her Bishops is a big indicator.


Give a quote from John Calvin on idols.

"the mind is a perpetual factory of idols."


What was so significant about the eye vs the ear during the reformation?

Margaret Aston argues that "the eye was donwngraded to the supremacy of the ear" and that "the innocence of the eye was irretrievably eroded", showing how the emphasis switched from visual culture like idols to oral culture like the sermon. Indeed, Felicity Heal identifies that some preachers were worried that the deaf would be excluded from salvation.


Under which years under Elizabeth I's reign did anti-Catholicism reach its height?

The turning point was Mary Queen of Scots fleeing Scotland as she became a rallying point for English Catholics


What binary did Peter Lake identify?

The negative-positive binary: anti-Catholic language was so incendiary that anything bad said about Rome implied that it's opposite good attribute could be applied to the English church.


Identify two examples of Catholic religious literature being repurposed for protestant purposes.

1. Robert Person's Catholic devotional 'The Book of Resolutions' was adapted for protestant use by Edmund Bunny
2. Antony Milton argued that "the shelves of puritan libraries seemed to have groaned under the weight of Catholic Bible commentaries."


Why did 'invisible catholics' worry protestants so much?

*Church popery- particularly when Rome's stance softened towards recusancy, as demonstrated by a letter from Cardinal William Allen in 1592 which urges Catholics to exercise "wisdom and charity" in wether to conform or not.
*Very real threat from foreign invasions, particularly after the 1570 Papal Bull 'Regnans in Excelcis' but also INTERNAL catholics. Every single Roman Catholic is now a threat to the Queen.


Joseph Hall wrote in 'Roma Irreconciliabis' that the Catholic church, could, in time be reformed to a more protestant way of thinking. -True or false?

False. Joseph Hall wrote in 1610 that 'Rome shall pass away by destruction, not change."


Name some Catholic plots against Elizabeth

1. Earls of Northumberland and Westmoreland get as far as re-instating catholicism in Durham Cathedral before they are stopped in 1569.
2. Ridolfi plot- crucially originated from ABROAD- 1571
3. Throckmorton plot-1583
4. Parry Plot- 1584
5. Babbington Plot- 1586- Mary Queen of Scots is executed for her alleged involvement in this.


When was the first Priest hung drawn and quartered? Why was this significant? How many Priests and helpers were executed altogether under Elizabeth's reign?

1577- Crucially catholicism becomes a matter of TREASON rather than religion.
124 priests are publicly executed along with 59 lay helpers


When was the St Bartholemew's Day Massacre?



Name two Jesuits.

Edmund Campion and Robert Parsons.


How were recusants 'treated like lepers'?

In 1593 they are prohibited from travelling more than 5 miles from home.


When was the Anglo-Spanish war?



Give a concrete, every day example of anti-Catholicism pervading all levels of society.

Robert Tower stipulated in his will that he would leave his house to his wife and son, but in the event that they both died without heirs that the money should go to Queens College Oxford to fund divinity scholarships.... BUT only on the grounds that "this be rescinded should religion alter and mass be received."


Name two Catholic martyrs.

Margaret Clitherow- 1586
Edmund Campion- 1581


How many Catholic bishops did Elizabeth have to expel at the start of her reign?

Just one.


On what grounds did the BCP give for excluding communicants?

"Sin, malice and ignorance" which was open to a wide range of interpretations.
Eg: Richard Greenham recommended that a priest in a new parish should suspend communion until he knew all were properly catechised.
- In 1597 Richard Purdy and his wife were excluded from communion in Suffolk for 'being hard on the poor' - showing how exclusion from communion could be a tool for priests to enforce morality as being excluded carried public shame
-often very public rows: case in 1590 of a falling out between Maragret Adams and Agnes Long... the curate tried to reassure them both but when Agnes saw Margaret present herself at Easter communion she publicly cried out "this is the woman that offended me!"
- Communicants were very pissed off if they had put their offering on the collection plate but the Priest took it and they didn't get communion
(Wrongly distributing the eucharist had two consequences:
- profaning of the sacrament
-damnation of unworthy recipients


Who were Atheos and Zealotes?

The subject of Puritan Minister George Gifford’s dialogue in 1582


How could lay/clerical relations be problematic?

- J.F. Merrit argues there is no 'universal' Anglican experience of the parish. Departure from clear lay/clerical relations of the Catholic church. George Gifford's Atheos and Zealotes is a good example.
- tithes/money- 10%
- agressive ministers- Stephen Denson called out his parishioners sins by name in the pulpit ('particularising')
Samuel Herron in Devon listed the sins of the deceased at funerals!
- admission to communion
-BUT was the vestry 'Presbyterianism' by the back door?
eg: St Olave's Jewry vestry paid Mr Tuke £12 to let them appoint a lecturer to preach on Sundays.
Richard Bancroft's 1584 satire also showed how he was worried about the power of the laypeople and ministers getting too cosy with non challenging sermons.