Human Induced Population Decline Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Human Induced Population Decline Deck (52)
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1
Q

What are the 5 ways humans induce population decline?

A

H: Habitat loss and Fragmentation
I: Invasive / Exotic Species
P: Pollution
P: People
O: Over-Exploitation

2
Q

What is the Traditional View of Fragmentation and Fragmented Landscapes?

A
  1. Gap Formation
  2. Gap Enlargement
  3. Conversion of landscape matrix to anthropogenic habitat
3
Q

What does HDE stand for?

A

Human Dominated Ecosystems

4
Q

How does fragmentation of a landscape normally occur in MB?

A

Road construction or township grid systems

5
Q

How are Gap Enlargements normally occurring in MB?

A

Edges are straight and unnatural and expansion of road systems.

6
Q

What are Shredded Habitats?

A
  • Remaining habitat in ribbons
  • Small islands (untouched)
7
Q

What are some impacts of linear features on a landscape? (7)

A
  1. Creates meta population
  2. Provides corridors for range of expansion of native and invasive species.
  3. Reduces availability of land base
  4. Population Sink
  5. Interfere with Breeding
  6. Displace Forest Interior Species
  7. Provide Increased Access to Humans and other Predators
8
Q

What does increased density of people in rural landscapes lead to?

A
  • Increased density of roads, buildings, and fences.
  • Light pollution
  • Domestication of wildlife
9
Q

What are some impacts of Urbanization?

A
  • Increased mortalities
  • Fragmentation of habitat
    -Wildlife loss
10
Q

What does urbanization lead to? (3)

A
  • Increase # of generalist species
  • Loss of species
  • Human Dominated Ecosystems (HDE)
11
Q

True or False: Today, only half of the world’s original forest cover remains.

A

True.

12
Q

What is an Alien / Exotic / Non-native species?

A

Organisms that have been deliberately or accidentally relocated by humans outside their natural, past or present distribution.

13
Q

True or False: Exotic species are always invasive.

A

False, not always.

14
Q

Define an invasive species:

A

The ability to spread and prosper in areas where the species has not occurred before and whose introduction or spread threatens the environment, economy, or society, including human health.

15
Q

Define a Biological Invasion:

A

The spread of alien organisms into areas where they do not naturally occur.

16
Q

Define a Naturalized Exotic:

A

Introduced species that have become established and are maintained by natural reproduction (not necessarily invasive).

17
Q

What makes a species invasive? (3)

A
  • High reproduction rates
  • Disperse easily
  • Lack of natural enemies
18
Q

What makes a plant species invasive? (4)

A
  • Early maturation
  • Rapid growth
  • Seed dormancy
  • Parasitize other plants
19
Q

Why should alien species be managed?

A

Because all areas on the globe with similar climates will contain a homogenized population of species.

20
Q

What are an example of an exotic species?

A

Zebra Mussles

21
Q

What is the 10% rule?

A

10% of introduced species will establish breeding populations, 10% of these species will become invasive.

22
Q

What are 3 examples of important pathways / vectors?

A
  • Livestock (Fleas, ticks)
  • Travel / tourism
  • Pet Trade
23
Q

True or False: Exotic plants comprise up to 47% of the known plant species in some US states.

A

True

24
Q

What is the Stephen Island Wren case an example of?

A

Endemic Extinction

25
Q

What are the 5 examples of pollution?

A
  1. Acid Rain
  2. Chemical Pollution
  3. Solid Waste Pollution
  4. Lead
  5. Light & Sound
26
Q

Why has global warming affected polar bear populations?

A

Because if the bay is without ice for longer than 180 days, the bears die because they can only live off their body fat for so long.

27
Q

Define The Human Footprint:

A

The amount of land and shallow sea appropriated by each person for food, water, housing, energy, transportation, commerce and waste absorption.

28
Q

How many earths do we currently need to sustain ourselves?

A

4

29
Q

Humans appropriate over ____ of the net primary productivity (the green material) produced on earth each year.

A

40%

30
Q

What are some animals that have been overexploited?

A
  • Bison
  • Lake Sturgeon
  • Rhinoceros
  • Elephant
31
Q

How have the Atlantic Cod been overfished?

A

Threats to persistence include fishing (now halted), predation by fish and seals, and natural fishing-induced changes to the ecosystem (COSEWIC).

32
Q

EXTINCTION VORTEX

A

Memorize this

33
Q

Were the Deer Lodge Bison a keystone species?

A

Yes

34
Q

What is the Buffalo Jump?

A

The animlas were forced to plunge over the cliff causing death or serious injury, the injured were then killed.

35
Q

The introduction of ______ led to a change in Buffalo hunting.

A

Horses

36
Q

what 3 ways did the introduction of horses change buffalo hunting methods?

A
  1. Could travel vast distances and hunt wider areas thus killing more buffalo
  2. Could use red river carts, which allowed them to take more gear and bring back more buffalo
  3. The use of buffalo jumps and pounds were no longer needed
37
Q

What are some definition characteristics of a Metis buffalo hunt?

A
  1. Twice per year
  2. Large Caravans
  3. Organized hunts
38
Q

What is one of the primary reasons of Bison overexploitation?

A

0.60 Caliber Muskets

39
Q

Who advanced a plan for the Red River Buffalo Wool Company?

A

John Pritchard

40
Q

By what date were Bison first under a state of continuous decline?

A

1820

41
Q

Who was the most Commercial Buffalo Hunters?

A

Buffalo Bill Cody

42
Q

When was the first attempt to regulate bison hunting?

A

1877 by the Territorial Council.

43
Q

What types of species of Bison hybridized?

A

Wood Buffalo Bison and Plains Bison

44
Q

Who were a part of the 4 founding herds?

A
  1. McKay
  2. Alloway
  3. Bendson & Pablo
  4. Allard, Buffalo Jones & Dnupree
45
Q

What percentage of bison are being bred for commodity production purposes?

A

96%

46
Q

Why does the federal government choose not to list bison as an endangered species?

A

Because it would negatively impact the commercial ranchers.

47
Q

True or False: Bison may be considered ecologically extinct.

A

True

48
Q

True or False: Attempts to hybridize cattle and bison when bison numbers were low resulted in considerable gene introgression.

A

True

49
Q

What are some genetical threats to overcome for bison?

A
  • Many bison carrying cattle genes
  • Ranchers altering gene pool by selecting for meat characteristics.
  • Presence of disease
50
Q

What type of “Effect” are the Deer Lodge Bison an example of ?

A

Genetic Bottleneck.
Deer Lodge bison were the only bison in the founding herds collected from the Northern plains.

51
Q

What did the cross border indigenous treaty establish?

A

This treaty established an intertribal alliance to restore bison to 6.3 million acres of land between the US and Canada, an area that is the size of Massachusetts.

52
Q

How many reservations were part of the treaty signed across the US and Canada?

A

8