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Flashcards in Human life cycle Deck (15):

Stages of change

-Pre-contemplation: not even thinking about the problem
-Contemplation: thinking about the problem and dabbling w/ the idea of change
-Preparation stage: fully recognizes the importance of change, considers how to change
-Action stage: new behaviors are implemented, if unstable the can be lost
-Maintenance: initial goal of behaviors are met and are now relatively stable, soon "automatic"
-Possibility (but not a stage): relapse to any stage of change


Developmental lines

-Physical growth, motor skills, control of bodily functions, cognitive development, social/emotional development


Stress and regretion

-Adults and children regress to earlier stages of development when sick or stressed



-Temperament (behavioral style): personality traits that are heritable (nature)
-Ex: approach to or avoidance of new stimuli. Babies that are novelty avoid ant are prone to anxiety later in life
-Attachment: nature plus nurture. Parents and children have innate drive to seek one another for survival of offspring
-The child's behavior on reunions is the most important indicator
-Disorganized attachments are considered particularly high-risk for later psychiatric illness
-Secure attachment leads to lower risk, promotes empathy


Infancy (0-12 months)

-6 weeks: social smile, following objects across midline
-7-12 mo: crawling
-12 mo: first words and walking
-Cognitive development: "sensory-motor phase"
-1-4 mo: objects are "out of sight out of mind"
-4-6 mo: beginning object permanence
-7-10 mo: established object permanence
-7 mo: pronounced stranger anxiety, attachment style established by 10 mo
-0-12 mo: oral phase, child interacts w/ world via mouth
-12 mo: most have transitional (comfort) object
-Stage of trust vs mistrust


Toddlerhood (1-3 yr)

-18 mo: avg 50 words, parallel play
-24 mo: combines words into 2-3 phrases
-2-3 yr: beginning of fantasy play
-3 yr: toilet training
Cognitive development: capacity to think/plan is no match for impulse to act
-up to 2 yrs is sensory-motor phase
-2-6 yrs is pre-operational period
-10-16 mo: early separation/individuation. Uses caregiver as "secure base"
-16-25 mo: late separation/individuation. Some oppositional behavior is normal (terrible twos, tantrums)
-2-3 yrs: fears regarding "bodily integrity" interest/overreaction in injuries
-Freud's anal stage (1-3 yrs): preoccupied w/ stool, toilets
-Autonomy vs shame/doubt


Preschool (3-6 yr)

-Live to play, symbolic/imaginary/ storytelling. Imaginary friends are normal, monsters are normal
-Must master basic social skills (sharing, taking turns, reciprocity). Failure of these leads to hitting/biting
-Cognitive development: pre-operational stage
-Conservation not understood. Egocentrism, inability to distinguish fantasy from reality, magical thinking (wishing for it makes it happen), interpret medical procedures as punishment
-Leads children to think something is their fault when it isn't
-Freud: phallic/oedipal stage. normal behaviors include masturbation and playing doctor
-Realizes they are not the center of the universe, establish clear empath
-initiative vs guilt


-School age (6-11 yr)

-5-6 begin 1st grade, play w/ same-sex (cooties), friends, best friends are very important
-Bullying, but no other aggression
-Require rules, fairness, grouping, play to win
-Cognitive development: concrete operations
-Conservation understood
-7 yr: knows the difference btwn reality and fantasy
-Development of "executive functions"
-Freud's latency stage: relief from sexual/power drives allows space for mastery of cognitive, athletic, and moral/social skills
-strong, often punitive, conscience
-industry vs inferiority



-Onset of puberty (9-10 for girls, 11 for boys)
-Social play, development of peer relationships, understanding cliques, talking on phone/texting/facebook
-Relationships primarily same-sex early on, but later is mixed
-Cognitive development: Formal operational stage. Form hypotheses, deductive reasoning
-higher cognitive functions (lag behind): judgement, risk assessment are impaired
-Struggle w/ aggressive and sexual impulses
-variability in self-esteem and mood
-Early adolescence we see the relaxation of the conscience, departure from parents rules, experimentation w/ identity, risk-taking behaviors
-Chronic conflict with and wholesale rejection of parent's rules and values is not notaml
-Concerned w/ larger social welfare
-Identity vs role-diffusion


Biophyschosocial aspects of adult development

-Early adulthood: biological (peak of biological development), psychological (intimacy vs isolation)
-Middle adulthood: biological (climacterium: decreased physiological function), physchological (stagnation vs generativity)
-Late adulthood: biological (aging), psychological (integrity vs despair)


Types of loss

-Real loss: death of a family member
-Threatened loss: threat to survival
-Symbolic loss: real loss w/ impact to society
-Fantasized loss: imagining negative consequences


Stages of bereavement (reaction to death)

-Numbness or protest
-Yearning for lost figure
-Disorganization and despair
-For children: protest, despair, detachment


Bereavement vs depression

-intense but transient symptoms for bereavement
-thoughts of suicide usually not present in bereavement
-some psychotic and emotional symptoms pertaining to the lost figure
-some feelings of guilt
-improves over time, where as depression is continuous


Diseases related to aging

-Macular degeneration
-Basal cell CA


Normal changes of aging

-Change in body composition
-Declined exercise HR but unchanged resting heart rate
-decreases FEV and FVC, unchanged TLC, thus increased RV. decreased central ventilatory response to hypoxia
-Normal serum creatinine does not mean normal renal function (overestimates GFR)
-Requires assessment of activities of daily life, instrumental activities of daily life, and advanced activities of daily life