Flashcards in Human Situation Deck (108):
How does humanity relate to the 'image of God' according to Migliore?
Capacity to reason, physical resemblance to God, human freedom, dominion over the earth, human life in relationship to others.
What is the order of creation in Genesis 1?
Heavens and earth, light and darkness, sky land and seas, plants, sun moon and stars, creatures, wild animals, humankind.
What is the order of creation in Genesis 2?
Heaven and earth, water on earth but no other life until humans created and given breath of life, all other life forms come after.
What did McGrath say was the distinction between God and creation?
Divine transcendence is the origin and purpose of creation, yet God is still immanent in his creation.
What does 'ex nihilo' mean?
God creates out of nothing.
What does the natural dimension consist of?
Reason and moral capacities.
What does the supernatural dimension consist of?
An ultimate purpose and destiny to be with God.
Genesis 3:19 quote about 'dust'
'You are dust, to dust you shall return.'
1 Corinthians 15:22 quote about Adam and Christ
'For as all die in Adam, so will all be made alive in Christ.'
What did God forbid Adam and Eve to do in the Garden of Eden in Genesis 3?
'You shall not eat of the fruit of the tree that is in the middle of the garden, nor shall you touch it, or you shall die.'
How was Eve tempted to disobey God in Genesis 3?
The serpent lied, won't die, the fruit= knowledge of good and evil so she would be 'like God'.
According to Genesis 3, how does God find out they ate the forbidden fruit?
They hide from God because they are ashamed of their nakedness.
How does God punish the serpent in Genesis 3?
By creating enmity between animals and human beings.
How does God punish Eve in Genesis 3?
Child birth becomes painful, and wives become subordinate to husbands.
How does God punish Adam in Genesis 3?
Humankind must now work hard and toil for their food; they also become mortal.
Define 'sin', according to David Lodge.
Disorder/ distortion, alienation present in way of life which prevents true fulfillment.
The wholeness of a person, with the actualisation of human potential from communion with God.
In the Christian belief, what is salvation?
The gift of God.
What is 'justification'?
The setting right with God.
What is 'sanctification'?
The presence of God's Spirit within to guide and support life according to God's will.
How can the original sin be seen as a 'fall upwards'?
It was the dawn of moral consciousness, a necessary stage in the progress of humanity.
According to the Karen Armstrong article, what was Augustine's influence?
The fall of Rome.
What were Augustine's views on sin?
God condemned humanity to eternal damnation, due to the original sin.
How did Augustine believe guilt could be passed down through generations?
Guilt passed down to descendants through sex, which was polluted by 'concupiscence'.
What does 'concupiscence' mean?
Taking pleasure from other creatures, rather than God.
What does Armstrong see as the effects of Augustine's views?
Humanity = chronically flawed, creating alienation, misogyny.
Did Orthodox Christianity accept Augustine's views?
No; creation and humanity essentially good.
What does 'Abba' mean?
God, a loving father. Creates a more personal relationship to God.
What were the key parts of Jesus' message?
Love, forgiveness, all qualities of life welcome in Kingdom. Lived an example of a Godly life.
What does the parable of the prodigal son teach us?
Forgiveness, not to 'live wildly'.
What did Jesus say were the two greatest commandments?
God is one and there is no other.
What does the Last Supper symbolise?
A new covenant, the forgiveness of sins, symbolic of Eucharist/ mass/ communion.
Explain the Eucharist/ mass/ communion.
Sacrament commemorating the Last Supper, in which bread and wine are consecrated and consumed.
What were McGrath's implications for the Doctrine of Creation?
Distinction between God and creation, goodness of creation, humans in the image of God (Migliore), human responsibilities and stewardship.
What are human's responsibilities according to McGrath?
Are stewards, co-creators- part of creation yet also responsible.
What does humanity's dominion over the earth reflect?
God's dominion over all of existence, in partnership with God it is humanity's responsibility to care for the planet and build within it a city of peace.
What does Adam and Eve's union reflect?
The union of God and Israel.
What was there in the beginning of Genesis 1?
Dark chaos, nothingness, only God.
What was there in the beginning of Genesis 2?
The earth is a desert- no plants, rain etc until God begins work.
What does Genesis 1 focus more on?
Ordering the elements of the universe.
What does Genesis 2 focus more on?
Who didn't accept Augustine's views?
Neither Jews nor Greek Orthodox Christians regarded the fall as so catastrophic.
Who first suggested the harsh portrait of God in Christianity which Augustine's doctrine compounds?
Did Augustine's doctrine of original sin create misogyny?
Yes; idea of women as temptresses, not allowed to ordain women in some churches.
What does the apple symbolise in Genesis 3?
Knowledge, mortality, free will, disobedience.
Did Augustine believe original sin was inherited or due to estrangement?
Inherited. Ward suggested the theory of original sin as estrangement from God due to poor moral choices.
What were Ward's 3 interpretations of the fall?
Historical/ constitutive (more disastrous), descriptive/ illustrative (less disastrous), a 'fall upwards' (a necessary stage in evolution).
Who believed the fall was historical/ constitutive?
Augustine, so extremely disastrous.
Who believed the fall was less disastrous?
E Orthodox; God's creation still good, and humans can choose to make morally good decisions.
What was Aquinas's view on the fall?
The guilt of original sin is removed in the sacrament of baptism.
What was the RC's view on the fall?
Less disastrous; can still choose to do good, and good deeds help towards salvation.
How was the fall a necessary stage in human progression?
C2 Iranaeus, saw it as the dawn of moral consciousness, salvation = 'renewed growth'. Hick, eschatological verification. Have to know good and evil in order to make moral decisions.
What were Ward's views on the 'fall upwards'?
We cannot be free otherwise; lust and aggression were necessary in the EEA; individuals are not doomed to failure.
What is 'theosis'?
Christ became human so that humanity might become divine.
For Orthodox Christians, what is the aim of life?
To be with God again; sacraments and worship help with this.
Did Orthodox Christianity accept or reject Augustine's doctrine of original sin?
They rejected it; humanity received Adam's corruption and mortality, but not his guilt.
What did Desmond Tutu say about human moral responsibility?
'To be human is to be a morally responsible creature.'
What was Jesus' teaching from the sermon on the mount?
God's perfection, 'do not resist an evil person', go the second mile.
What is the lesson in the story of the prodigal son?
God always forgives, do not take things for granted or 'live wildly'.
What are the 2 greatest commandments?
God is one and there is no other, love God and all people.
What is the lesson in the story of the good Samaritan?
Have mercy on others, no matter who they are.
How to live in God's kingdom?
Love God and others, including enemies, be generous, forgiveness.
What difference did Jesus' coming make to the relationship between humanity and God?
New, loving and inclusive relationship, new covenant between humans and God.
What difference did Jesus' death make to the relationship between humanity and God?
Restored humanity and brings forgiveness for our sins, sacrifice revealed the love of God, causing humanity to live as He would like.
Is it possible for Christians to achieve eternal life?
Yes; this was a new concept brought about by Jesus.
What is the first argument for the reliability of Jesus' resurrection?
If you choose to deny miracles, nothing will change your mind, despite evidence.
What is the second argument for the reliability of Jesus' resurrection?
The laws of nature can be interrupted by a higher power.
What is the third argument for the reliability of Jesus' resurrection?
The disciples would not have stolen the body.
What is the fourth argument for the reliability of Jesus' resurrection?
Halluncinations= see what you expect, bu the disciples would not have expected his return.
What is the fifth argument for the reliability of Jesus' resurrection?
People use to be against Jesus, only a miracle could have changed their minds.
What is the sixth argument for the reliability of Jesus' resurrection?
Real deceivers would have smoothed out inconsistencies in a lie.
What is the first argument against the reliability of Jesus' resurrection?
It was used as an explanation to fill gaps in human knowledge.
What is the second argument against the reliability of Jesus' resurrection?
His followers could have moved his corpse.
What is the third argument against the reliability of Jesus' resurrection?
Hallucinations could have caused the sightings of Christ.
What is the fourth argument against the reliability of Jesus' resurrection?
Records of the event are inconsistent and contradicting.
Explain the 'Christ the Victor' theory of atonement.
Christ battles against all powers that hold human beings captive, and by his death and resurrection, Christ defeats these powers and thus frees their captives.
Explain the satisfaction theory of atonement.
Satisfaction must be given for any act which dishonors the Lord; satisfaction due = infinite. Humanity MUST provide satisfaction, but only God CAN. Thus God become incarnate and died. Satisfaction = rendered, justice done, God's honor restored, sinners forgiven.
Explain the moral influence theory of atonement.
Subjective, shows God's love to us in a way that we are constrained to respond in wonder and gratitude.
What does the term 'paraousia' mean?
Rapture (recent term).
What does the term 'eschatology' mean?
The study of the end times.
What did Paul believe about paraousia?
Imminent- Jesus' second coming, as the kingdom of God not yet fully established.
Which believers rise first?
The dead rise first (with imperishable bodies, and Jesus thought the body and soul were one), then the living believers.
What happens during judgement in the end times?
People either go to the New Heaven (New Jerusalem, New Earth, no suffering, God reigning), or Hell (a fiery lake).
Who will be saved?
All; universalism, in the end times all will realise the truth of God. Believers; only Christian believers will be saved (most Christians believe this). Chosen few; predestination.
What are Ward's 3 approaches to Biblical language?
Literal (RC+Protestant), metaphorical, realist but non-literal (metaphors stand for some kind of reality).
What is the RC idea of heaven?
Continuation of lief before the Fall, perfect, God's presence.
How do RC's believe you can get to heaven?
Through faith, sacraments and good work.
What is the RC idea of hell?
The absence of God.
What is the RC idea of purgatory?
A purging/ cleansing process between heaven and hell. We should pray for the dead to progress to heaven.
How do Protestants believe you can get to heaven?
Through faith alone, the Bible. No existence of purgatory.
What is meant by the presence of a new age in Christianity?
Christ's coming inaugurates a new era/age.
What are the metaphors for new life in Christianity?
Born again- adopted as children of God. Die and rise with Christ in baptism. Set free from slavery of sin and law.
How did Paul see the resurrection of Jesus?
An eschatological event, affirming the 'new age' inaugurated.
How is humanity fallen in relation to God?
Historical/ causative, descriptive and 'fall upwards' arguments.
How is humanity dependent on God?
Hinduism- bhakti marga, Christianity- models of atonement, victory and satisfaction.
How is humanity predestined by God?
Hinduism- karma and samsara, samchita karma (although not completely predestined as there is free will over whether or not to follow dharma), cat school of Vishishtadvaita Vedanta- we can only attain moksha when God chooses.
How is humanity like a servant to God?
Calvinism, predestined, humans are slaves to God. Monarchical model= God is a master, used as a form of social control in the middle ages. Creation- rules to follow, had free will but this was limited. The fall- dismissed for disobeying God. Only God has to ability to forgive sins.
How did feminists criticize the monarchical model of God?
It has been used to justify colonialism, racism and patriarchy.
How did Iranaeus describe humanity's relationship to God as 'soul making'?
Suffering present in the world to allow us to develop as humans made in the image of God with free will. (Augustine argued that evil is necessary for free will, is a lack of good, not caused by God.)
How do Christians describe humanity's relationship to God as 'soul making'?
Orthodox- seek theosis with God.
RCs- seek salvation.
Protestants- seek justification.
How is humanity under judgement from God?
Eschatology- judgement day, different views on who will be saved (ABC), judged by deeds, punishments and rewards.
How do Pelagius and Augustine's views about humanity and sin compare?
Pelagius- sin is free and willful. Free will unaffected by the fall. If God intervened it would compromise his relationship with humanity.
Augustine- humanity universally affected by the fall. Free will limited, weakened and distorted by sin, but not destroyed. Totally dependent on God to save.
How do Pelagius and Augustine's views about God and salvation compare?
Pelagius- Grace= enlightenment from God (eg commandments).
Augustine- Grace= Christ is the physician, liberator and pardoner. Grace is special gifts, which can transform human nature internally.
What do Protestants mean by the term 'justification'?
God's act of removing the guilt and penalty of sin while also declaring a sinner righteous through Jesus' atonement.
What did Luther say about God and salvation?
We are saved by grace through faith alone; good works are a sign/result of faith, but do not justify. God's mercy and grace are a precondition of right relationship between God and humanity.
What did Calvin say about humanity and sin?
We were created good but post fall reason and will are corrupt, sinfulness is inherited.
What did Calvin say about God and salvation?
Christ is the 'channel' through whom God's grace is available.