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Flashcards in Human Spaceflight Deck (26):
0

True or False: There is a lot of data available on the human body in long duration missions.

False, there is a lack of data.

1

How has the space environment interacted with life?

Accelerating forces, Microgravity, Vacuum, Temperature, Closed-loop environment, Isolation, Radiation, EM field, Circadian Cycles

2

Life on Earth has evolved while the force of ______ has been constant for 4.5 Billion years

Gravity

3

What was discovered during Mercury 8?

Modest increase in heart rate post flight

4

What was discovered during Mercury 9?

Increase in heart rate post flight

5

What was discovered during Gemini?

Fainting Episodes

6

What was discovered during Apollo?

Heart Rhythm Disturbance (arrhythmia)

7

What was discovered during the Shuttle missions?

8 episodes of fainting or dizziness in the first 26 missions.

8

What was discovered by the Soyuz 9 Crew?

They were so severely debilitated they could not egress the capsule without assistance.

9

What was discovered by Soviet long duration space flights?

Many returning crews were incapacitated and completely unable to egress the capsule without help.

10

What is affected by Space Adaptation Syndrome (SAS)?

Cardio-vascular: Heart and Vessles
Musculo-skeletal: Muscles and bone
Neuro-vestibular: Equilibirum, spatial orientation
Cell production: Blood producing organs and immune system
Intracranial cerebrospinal: fluid surrounding spine and brain

11

What is the transit out, Mars surface stay, and return duration on a typical Mars mission timeline?

161 days out, 573 day stay, 154 days return

12

Based on US and Russian space flight data, US astronaut longitudinal data, and submarine, Antarctic winter-over, and military aviation experience, what is the incidence of significant illness or injury?

0.06 per person per year as defined by US standards. Requiring emergency room(ER) visit or hospital admission.

13

Subset requiring intensive care (ICU) support is ________ per person per year?

0.02

14

For a Mars mission, what are the projected rates of illness or injury? 6 crewmembers, 2.5 year mission.

0.9 persons per mission to require ER capability. 0.3 persons per mission to require ICU capability.

15

Recall the clinical problems of a long duration mission to Mars and the need for effective medical support.

-Difficulty of rehabilitation following landing
-Trauma and acute medical problems
-Illness and ambulatory health problems
-Altered pharmacodynamics and adverse drug reaction

16

What is the need for effective medical support?

Facilities must be mostly autonomous. One-way Earth-Mars communications time is 3-22 minutes.

17

Life Support includes:

Gravity, Radiation Protection, food, Water, Pressure, Air, Temperature, Waste Removal

18

Human needs to sustain life:

Air (O2, CO2, pressure, temperature, humidity, cleanliness)
Water
Food
Protection (against radiation, noise, vibration, acceleration, thermal extremes, MMOD, etc.)

19

How much food does a person need per year?

219 Kg (~3x body mass)

20

How much Oxygen does a person need per year?

292 kg (~4x body mass)

21

How much potable water does a person need per year?

1132 kg (~8x body mass)

22

How much hygiene water does a person need per year?

2008 kg

23

How much laundry water does a person need per year?

4562 kg

24

What is the mass and cost of total consumables per person?

8213 kg per person per year
$50,000 per day in launch costs per person.

25

What do EVA suits provide?

Pressurized atmosphere
Sufficient oxygen partial pressure in alveoli
Carbon-dioxide removal
Temperature regulation/control
Micrometeorite Protection
Mobility during EVA
Radiation Protection