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Flashcards in Humanities 2 Deck (34):

Industrial Revolution

A big fast change in how we make things


What time did the Industrial revolution happen

1720 till around 1840


What area of society was changed first

The Community farms were changed into enclosures



When farms were made private and fenced off with hedges or small stone walls


Enclosure advantages

It allowed people to grow more and have more time to invent machines that can help them.


Enclosure Disadvantages

Most of the poor who depended on the community land of the farms lost there living and had to rely completely on there wages they got. Some moved away from the villagers for work on the cities


Charles Townshend 4 field rotation

Divided into 4 fields, wheat - turnips - barley - clover, rotated 1 field each year over 4 year cycle. By planting clover and turnips after wheat and barley it replenished the soil of it's nutrients


Jethro Tulls seed drill

In 1700 horse drawn seed drill that planted 3 rows at a time. It made holes, planted the seed and then covered the whole up. Prevented loss of scattered seeds because no birds could eat it and cannot blow away


Spread of Industrialisation

Other than Britain countries affected by industrialisation were the United States, Germany and France


Alessandro Volta

An Italian Physicist who invented the alkaline battery


Alexander Bell

An American innovator who invented the first working telephone


Thomas Edision

An American inventor and businessman who invented the phonograph, able to record and play back, and the light bulb


Guglielmo Marconi

An Italian inventor who was able to establish radio communication


James Watt

A Scottish inventor and mechanical engineer who made improvements to the Newcomen steam engine by allowing the steam to be cooled and reused


Robert Fulton

An American engineer who created the commercial steamboat


George Stephenson

An English civil engineer who made the first public, intercity rail line


Henry Ford

An American Engineer who produced the Quadracycle, Model T and Ford Motor Company


Wilbur and Orville Wright

2 American brothers who invented the dirigible


Rudolf Diesel

A German engineer who created the Diesel Engine used in large trucks and submarines


Population explosion factors

After 1700 population rose because of eradication of the Plague, improved medical science, supplies of good quality food and the fact the children can also work in factories and mines bringing in a larger income


Significance of 1851 Great Exibition

To celebrate the technology and industrial design from all over the world but also to demonstrating British industrial power


What was child labor

Child labour was when children worked the same hours and roughly the same jobs as adults


Why was child labour used

To allow family's to bring in more money and factory owner to make more products


Working conditions then

Not only were the workers cramped, always in danger and poisoning their bodies they also had to make sure that they conformed to the rules and kept going even if they were tied otherwise they would be beaten by the supervisors


working conditions today

We have OHS policies, protective clothing including ventilation, medical approval and limited hours


Living conditions then

Houses were built back to back(no gardens), no plumbing, narrow streets, public cesspools, rubbish littering the streets


Living conditions today

We can design and build our own houses and cannot live in industrial suburbs


Robert Owen

A factory owner who stopped employing young children and created a school for them and older children limiting there working hours. Also built clean and comfortable houses for his workers


Lord Ashley

He encouraged the passing of laws to improve working conditions, introduced factory acts, supported mine acts of 1842 and set up first free school


Edwin Chadwick

He companied for poor law commissions, the poor law amendment of 1834 and clean water and sanitation


Union movement

It was around the 1820's when unions started to form


What are unions

Unions are associations of people who work in similar trades made to campaign for improved working conditions and better wages


Combination act

In 1799 and 1800 the combination acts were passed banning workers from forming unions but were revoked then replaced with the combination acts of 1825 not allowing workers to strike but were allowed to bargain over conditions and pay.


Shipping changes

Led to Britain having a larger trading empire and a spread of industrialisation to other countries