Hunter: Acute Phase Response Flashcards Preview

Block 7 Week 4 > Hunter: Acute Phase Response > Flashcards

Flashcards in Hunter: Acute Phase Response Deck (33):
1

Most responses to pathogens remain (blank), but systemic responses do occur

localized

2

Some systemic inflammatory responses to pathogens can be positive and protective. Give an example; other systemic responses can be negative and harmful. Give an example

acute phase response and fever; sepsis and septic shock

3

What is the LPS receptor?

CD14

4

Cytokines that mediate the acute phase response and fever

IL-6, TNF-alpha, IL-IB

5

Chemotactic factor that recruits neutrophils and basophils to the site of infection

CXCL8

6

This cytokine is predominantly involved in the acute phase response in the liver

IL-6

7

Cytokines involved in induction of fever

IL-1 and TNF-alpha

8

These are the principle cytokines that mediate the systemic effects of inflammation

IL1
IL6
TNF-alpha

9

an evolutionarily conserved and highly coordinated systemic reaction to disturbances in homeostasis caused by infection, tissue injury, trauma or surgery, neoplastic growth, or immunological disorders

acute phase response

10

The acute phase response involves changes in plasma levels of (blank), many produced in the liver in response to (blank)

acute phase proteins *fibrinogen, haptoglobin, serum amyloid protein, C-reactive protein;
IL6

11

the predominant cytokine produced during an inflammatory response that induces the liver to produce acute phase reactants like C-reactive protein

IL-6

12

Positive acute phase proteins include:
(blank), which opsonizes and traps microorganisms
(blank) which activates complement
(blank) which causes coagulation and fibrinolysis,
(blank) which scavenges free Hg and iron,
and (blank) which neutralizes enzymes

C-reactive protein;
Mannan-binding lectin;
Fibrinogen, prothrombin, factor VIII;
ferritin;
alpha 1-antitrypsin

13

What does C-reactive protein do?

good diagnostic marker of inflammation
also promotes opsonization by activating the classical complement pathway and generating c3b

14

an acute phase protein produced in the liver that functions as an opsonin to promote the phagocytosis and killing of this microorganism

C-reactive protein

15

Inflammation-associated coagulation begins when cytokines, Toll-like receptor (TLR) agonists, or other stimuli induce (blank) expression on the surfaces of monocytes and vascular endothelial cells

tissue factor

16

hepatic synthesis of these two factors decreases during the acute-phase response

protein C
antithrombin III

17

The end result of the acute phase reaction is increased (blank) activity and decreased (blank), which promotes fibrin formation and thrombosis

thrombin; fibrinolysis

18

Local infection causes release of cytokines which communicate with brain centers to affect local cytokine and prostaglandin synthesis and produce (blank) and (blank)

sickness behavior;
fever

19

What are some ways in which the acute phase response is kept in check

anti-inflammatory molecules:
IL-1 receptor antagonists
neuroendocrine hormones to downregulate immune responses
protease inhibitors or antioxidants

20

Body temperature is a vital sign that is controlled by the (blank)

hypothalamus

21

Neurons in the hypothalamus receive two kinds of signals in order to maintain the hypothalamic set point

1. signals from peripheral nerves about warmth/cold receptors in the skin
2. signals about the temperature of the blood

22

What is fever?

increase in the hypothalamic set point due to the generation of prostaglandins, leading to an elevation of normal body temperature

23

What is the first sign of fever?

vasoconstriction in hands and feet, which shunts blood away from periphery to internal organs and makes you feel cold - shivering may occur to generate heat

24

T/F: For most fevers caused by infections, body temperature only increases by 1°-2°C

True

25

any substance that causes fever

pyrogen

26

Name one exogenous pyrogen - substance outside the patient that causes fever

LPS endotoxin produced by all gram-negative bacteria

27

Endotoxins from bacteria can directly cause fever, but fever can also be caused indirectly through what mechanism?

release of cytokines, like IL1, IL6 and TNFalpha

28

T/F: Fever is always due to microbial agents.

False; fever can be a manifestation of disease due to inflammation, trauma, tissue necrosis, antigen-antibody complexes; it can even be due to unknown origin

29

key arachidonic acid metabolite responsible for resetting of the hypothalamic set point

PGE2

30

What must you lower in order to lower fever?

PGE2

31

Which enzyme is inhibited by acetaminophen, aspirin, and other non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs?

cyclooxygenase

32

What are some benefits of fever?

many microorganisms grow best w/i a narrow temp range, so hyperthermia benefits the patient;
increases antibody production;

33

What are some down-sides to fever?

very high temps are harmful;
high rectal temp is called (hyperpyrexia);
heat stroke