HW Characterization, Containment and Remediation - Exam II Material Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in HW Characterization, Containment and Remediation - Exam II Material Deck (58):
1

Describes diffusion in one direction and how it changes with time

Fick's Law

2

Solutes move from a zone of higher concentration to a zone of lower concentration

Diffusion

3

Solutes are carried along with flow groundwater
- Related to the avg linear velocity and the effective porosity of the aquifer.

Advection

4

Variable flow rates and flow paths result in dispersion of solutes

Mechanical dispersion

5

The process of diffusion cannot be separated from mechanical dispersion

Hydrodynamic dispersion

6

Point source solute introduced as a slug injection

Fixed concentration

7

Continued point source solute introduced over time at fixed location

Fixed gradient

8

Flow rate and solute concentration within the system change with time

Variable flux

9

In-situ process where microbes are used to degrade or immobilize contaminants

Bioremediation

10

Use of natural processes to remediate a site, with the involvement of careful monitoring

Monitored Natural Attenuation

11

New technique that is used extensively to remediate LUST sites have contaminated GW with petroleum products

In-Situ Air Sparging

12

Treatment designed to degrade or immobilize contaminants as GW flows through an engineered barrier

Permeable Reactive Barriers

13

In-Situ Flushing

Process involves use of an aqueous solution

14

Most common technology used for GW remediation

Pump and Treat Method (Only Ex-Situ GW Remediation)

15

Methods used to remove, immobilize or degrade/destroy contaminants in the GW based on physical, chemical, and biological processess

Technologies

16

Particles with diameters less than 1 mm, insoluble organic liquids and mineral matters

Colloid

17

Colloids can travel faster than the avg linear velocity bc they can only travel through larger pore throats

Size-Exclusion Effect

18

Phenomenon that occurs when solutes move through a GW system at rates slower than the groundwater velocity

Retardation

19

Process where solutes attach to mineral surfaces

Adsorption

20

Solutes diffuse into porous material and adhere to interior surfaces

Absorption

21

Microbial products that can further enhance retardation by slowing dispersion and advection processes.

Biofilm

22

Degredation of organic molecules primarily through microbial processes

Biodegredation

23

Convergence of uniformly infiltrating fluid as a result of permeability variations

Fingering (preferential flowpath)

24

Horizontal migration along an inclined, porous surface, limiting vertical migration of fluid

Funneling (preferential flowpath)

25

Preferential pathways for the downward migration of fluids

Macropores

26

LNAPL can partition into a vapor phase as described by Henry's Law

Volitilization

27

Contaminated Site Characterization

1. Preliminary assessment
2. Preliminary site visit
3. Detailed site investigation
4. Decontamination
5. Chain of custody
6. Geologic samples
7. Hydrologic sampling

28

Developed based on risk assessment

Redmediation

29

Installation of low permeability physical barriers

Passive systems (In-Situ Containment)

30

Manipulation of hydraulic gradients (pumping, injection, drains)

Active Systems (In-Situ Containment)

31

Overlapping grout bulbs are injected under contaminant zone

Permeation Grouting (bottom barrier)

32

Short, overlapping columns/ disks are formed beneath contaminant

Jet Grouting (bottom barrier)

33

Parabolic path i drilled under contaminant then backfilled with grout material

Directional Drilling w/ Grouting (bottom barrier)

34

Simultaneous injection of high pressure grout throughout a well field that results in the planar fracturing and lifting of the contaminant block and emplacement of a low permeability grout seam

Hydrofracturing / Block Displacement Method (bottom barrier)

35

Permeation grout is injected around steel piles to seal seams

Sheet Pile w/ Injection Grouting

36

Wells installed to remove contaminated water from the subsurface or to draw contaminate away from highly sensitive area

Extraction Well

37

Fluids can be injected to created water table/potentiometric highs that can redirect GW flow or create GW barriers

Injection Well

38

Hydraulic conditions can be modified to capture, divert or isolate contaminant plumes.

Well Systems

39

Extends / enlarges existing fractures to increase the efficiency of in-situ remediation technologies

Soil Fracturing

40

Removal, stabilization or degradation of contaminants in soils by plants

Phtyoremediation

41

Process that uses microbes to degrade organic contaminants or immobolize inorganic contaminants

Bioremediation

42

Technology to melt and convert contaminated soil into stable glass or crystalline product
**Contaminants are immobilized through chemical bonding or encapsulation.

Vitrification

43

Method of heating soils (200 - 1000°F) to cause contaminants with low boiling points to vaporize

Thermal Desorption

44

Process where an electric potential is applied to the soil and contaminants are transported towards the electrodes

Electrokinetic Remediation

45

Advective transport or movement of water or moisture under an electric field

Electroosmosis

46

Movement of charged ions or charge species toward the electrode with the same charge

Electromigration

47

Movement of charged colloids towards their respective electrode

Electrophoresis

48

Reactions in the electric field associated with the electrode charge

Electrolysis

49

Process where additives or processing is used to chemically bind and immobilize contaminants

Stabilization

50

Process that encapsulates contaminants in a matrix that physically prevents mobility

Solidification

51

Process of separating fine-grained fraction and organics with contaminants from soil through screening and washing with a solute solution

Soil Washing

52

Similar to leachate collection systems in landfills

Subsurface drains

53

Technique to remove VOCs and motor fuels from contaminated soils

Soil Vapor Extraction

54

What is an example of a LNAPL (Light Non-Aqueous Phase Liquid)?

Benzene

55

What is an example of a DNAPL?

Chlorinated solvents

56

What type of clay is most commonly added to native soil/sediment to create low permeability horizons/barriers?

Compacted

57

What soil remediation process utilizes technology to melt and convert contaminated soil into stable glass or crystalline products?

Vitrification

58

What soil remediation process utilizes plants to remove, stabilize or degrade contaminants?

Phytoremediation