what is a closed system in terms of the hydrological cycle?
a closed system means there is a fixed amount of water because it doesn’t leave or enter the earth and its atmosphere.
what is it called where water is held?
name the 3 stores of water
- the atmosphere
- the land
- the sea
when water moves from the different stores what is it called?
where does the water in the atmosphere go?
it exists either as water vapour or as minute droplets in clouds
where does the water in land stored?
water can be stored on the surface of rivers, lakes and reservoirs. its stored in vegetation and below ground known as groundwater store. it can also be stored in ice, snow and glaciers.
how much of the earths water is held in the sea?
list the different transfers of water?
- overland flow
- infiltration and percolation
- groundwater flow
the heat of the sun turns water into gas this takes place of the surface of the sea, rivers and lakes
what is transpiration?
plants take up liquid water from the soil and breathe it into the atmosphere as water vapour
the loss of moisture from the ground by direct evaporation
when water vapour cools and becomes liquid the liquid takes the form of water droplets and appears as clouds
the transfers of water from the atmosphere to the land or sea surface
whats over land flow ?
when water enters a stream, lake, or lake
what is infiltration and percolation?
transfer of water through rock and soil into groundwater stores?
what is throughflow?
when water moves through the soil until it reaches a stream or river
what is groundwater flow ?
underground transfers of water to rivers lakes and sea
whats a drainage basin?
its an open system which hold water
what are the inputs of drainage basins?
- energy from the sun
- precipitation from moisture
what are the outputs of drainage basin?
- rivers discharge
- evaporation and transpiration
whats the difference from a permeable and impermeable rock?
permeable=absorb water- little run off
impermeanble=waterproof-rapid run off
what is lag time?
the time from when water hits the ground to when it enters a stream
whats the base flow
normal amount of discharge
what is storm flow
additional amount of discharge after a rainstorm
what affects river regimes
- the intensity of rainfall
- rock type
- vegetation and land use
- human inventions
what 3 processes of rivers shape landforms
erosion transport and deposition
how does weathering cause mass movement
weathering breaks down rocks and causes them to decay and disintegrate. plant roots grown into rocks which eventually causes them to split. the weathered material starts to move downstream under gravity. this is mass movement
what is hydraulic action
when water hits banks the such force that it breaks down the material and caries it away
what is abrasion
the material carried downstream rubs the bottom of the river bed which widens and deepens the channel
what is corrosion
minerals in rocks are dissolved by the water flowing past them
what is the load
the material washed into the river.
what is deposition
material laying down at the bottom of the river
what can affect deposition
decrease in energy, speed and discharge
describe upper land characteristics of a river
its steep and v shaped . theres waterfalls, gorges and interlocking spurs. formed by erosion.
how is a waterfall formed
when there is hard rock on top of soft rock below the soft rock gets eroded and water falls over the head rock which forms a gorge below it
describe low land characteristics of a river
the valley becomes wider, deeper and smoother. the river velocity and discharge increase. there is lateral erosion. there is a lot of deposition.
how is an oxbow lake formed
when a river erodes laterally it deposits material at the side of the bend. once the curve gets cut by the amount of deposition it forms an oxbow lake
what percentage of water is fresh water
what is fresh water needed for
- domestic use
- industrial use
- agricultural use
- leisure use