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Flashcards in hypertension Deck (13):
1

describe hypertensive urgency

-  SBP > 180 mmHg or a DBP >120 mmHg

- NO associated acute end organ damage of CNS, CV or kidneys

- BP must be reduced over hours to days

2

describe hypertensive emergency

- markedly elevated BPs

- Presence of acute end organ damage, often the result of the acute rise in BP

--> Eye, kidney, brain, etc

- requires IMMEDIATE therapy to reduce BP within minutes to hours to prevent further morbidity and mortality

3

describe Resistant hypertension

- BLOOD PRESSURE that is uncontrolled despite the use of three or more antihypertensive drugs

--> ideally taken at optimal dosease, and of which one is a diuretic

- Secondary causesa re more common in the subset of patients with RHTN than in the general hypertensive population

4

describe teh general risk factors for Resistant HTN (RHTN)

- older age, obesity

- chronic kidney disease (CKD)

- diabetes

- Obstructive sleep apnea

- consumption of high-salt diet

- african american race

- female gender

5

what are the major non-pharmacological lifestyle modifications

- reduce weight

- adopt DASH eating plan

- lower sodium intake

- physical acitivty

- Moderation of alcohol consumption (J curve effect)

6

describe baroreceptor reflex in hypertension

- chronic hypertension "RESETS" the baroreflex such that the increased pressure is considered normal

- With each antihypertensive agent, one must consider the effects on the baroreflex

--> attempts to lower the pressure activates reflex mechanisms that act to raise pressure

7

drugs to tx HTN In diabetes

- ACEI or ARB

8

drugs to TX HTN in pts with chronic kidney disease

ACEI or ARB

9

drugs to TX HTN in pts with coronary artery disease

ACEI or ARB

and Beta-Blocker

10

drugs to TX HTN in pts with Left ventricular dysfunction

Diuretics

ACEI or ARB and B-Blockers

11

Drugs to TX HTN in pts with previous ischemic stroke

ACEI with or without thiazide diuretic

12

review renin-angiotension-aldosertone system

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13

describe therapeutic targets in the RAA system for HTN

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