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LSS 1 - CVS - Laz > Hypertension > Flashcards

Flashcards in Hypertension Deck (12)
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What is the threshold for hypertension?

140/90 mm Hg


How does blood pressure change with age?

Systolic increases fairly linearly
Diastolic plateaus and then decreases
The difference between systolic and diastolic increases


What is the difference between primary and secondary hypertension? Which one is more common?

Primary/Essential Hypertension - has no known cause (95% of all hypertension)
Secondary Hypertension - has an underlying cause


Give some examples of secondary hypertension.

Renal Artery Stenosis
Conn's Syndrome (inappropriate secretion of aldosterone)
Pheochromocytoma (tumour of the adrenal medulla causing increased production of catecholamines)
Oral Contraceptive Pill
Liddle's Syndrome


Give some lifestyle risk factors of hypertension.

Obesity, Smoking, Alcohol, Salt Intake


What part of the CO = MABP/TPR equation is most affected in hypertension?

There is an increase in TPR caused by decreased arterial compliance
Normal cardiac output
Normal blood volume


State three causes of an increase in TPR.

Active narrowing of arteries - vasoconstriction
Structural narrowing of arteries - due to remodelling
Loss of capillaries


What organ has a major influence on hypertension?

Kidneys - hypertension is strongly associated with impaired renal flow and blood flow


What is congestive heart failure?

The inability of the heart to adequately pump blood at normal filling pressures.


What can hypertension do to large arteries?

Arterial hypertrophy
Promote atherosclerosis
Aneurysms - thrombosis and haemorrhage


What does hypertension do to the microvasculature?

Hypertension causes a decrease in capillary density and a subsequent elevation of capillary blood pressure


What becomes present in the urine in hypertensive people?

The kidneys are a target for damage due to hypertension. It leads to renal dysfunction leading to the presence of albumin in the urine (microalbuminuria). The concentration of albumin in the urine is proportional to the systolic blood pressure.