Flashcards in Hypo,pit... Deck (150):
Integrative center for many homeostatic circuits?
Hypothalamus is located in the walls and floors of the ____________ and above the _________
Hypothalamus is connected to the posterior pituitary by?
3 types of inputs/ afferent
Neuronal, hormonal, local conditions
Has sensor for tempt osmolality
Autonomic nervous system, limbic system, pituitary
3 functions of hypothalamus
•direct control of the autonomic nervous system
•communication with the limbic system
• hormonal control of endocrine system
Prolactin inhibitory hormone
pituitary gland is also know as?
The main body of pituitary is contained in a small cavity called?
Sella turcica or turkish saddle
Anterior pituitary gland is alaso known as?
Hormoes which target other endocrine gland?
Anterior pituitary gland
Part of pituitary gland that has little function capacity?
Intermediate lobe or pars intermedialis
Posterior pituitary gland is also known as?
Posterior pituitary gland secretes _______ & __________?
Oxytocin and Vasopressin (ADH)
May be peptides or glycoproteins?
Anterior pituitary Gland
What type of cells secretes growth hormone?
What type of cells secretes prolactin?
Lactotropes or mammotropes
What type of cells secretes TSH?
What type of cells secretes FSH and LH?
What type of cells secretes ACTH
2 classification of hormone?
Tropic and Direct effector
Acts specifically for another endocrine gland?
Acts directly on peripheral tissue?
Direct effector hormone
Example of direct effector hormone?
GH & PRl
Also called Somatotropin?
Promotes growth of the body affection the protein hormone formation, cell multiplication and differentiation
Secretion of GH occurs every?
Peaks of GH?
Onset of sleep
Growth hormone is inhibited by?
Somatostatin or somatomedin C
Influence both anabolic and catabolic process?
Also known as amphibolic hormone?
Amphibolic hormones allows effective transition from _________ to __________ without shortage of subtrates
Ut directly antagonize effect of insulin on glucose metabolism
It provide hepatic gluconeogenesis
it stimulates lipolysis
Amphibolic hormone enhances protein synthesis in __________
Skeletal muscle and other tissue
It stimulates production of IGF1
It inhibits lipolysis
Examples of stimulators of GH
Meals, Excercise, Sleep and hypoglycemia
Give inhibitors of GH
Glucose loading, epinephrine, emotional/pyschogenic stress, Nutritional deficiencies, insulin def
Examples of GH disorders
Acromegaly & Gigantism
It is the overproduction of GH (______ng/ml)
Acromegaly is usually caused by _______?
Give clinical features of acromegaly
Organimegaly (enlarged heart & liver)
Enlargement of extremities
Hyperhidrosis (inc. sweating)
Treatment for acromegaly?
Tumor ablation & Gh suppression
Extreme tall sutures; GH excess occurs before epiphyseal fusion is complete
Causes of GH deficiency
Tumor such as craniopharyngioma
Genetic mutations in GHRH OR GH gene
Abnormalities of pituitary gland
Clinical features of GH def. in children (pituitary dwarfism)
Low growth velocity
Immature facial appearance
Retarded bone age
Clinical feature of Gh def. in adults
Reduced muscle mass
Osteoporosis/ dec bone density
Treatments for Gh def.
GH replacement therapy
Surgical removal of tumor
Specimen for GH test?
Give GH deficiency tests
Insulin tolerance test
Arguments stimulation test
Gold standard for Gh def. test?
Insulin Tolerance test
GH NV: ________ adults
> 5 ng/ml
What is the test for GH production?
Oral glucose loading
What kind of fasting for oral glitches loading?
How many g if glucose load?
Measure GH at how many mins?
0, 60 & 120 mins after glucose ingestion
Result of GH in normal ppl after taking oral glucose loading?
Undetectable GH lvl
Result of GH in ppl w/ acromegaly after taking oral glucose loading?
Increase GH lvl
Control the growth of the ovary and testes and the hormonal and reproductive activities?
Gonadotropins ( FSH & LH)
Gonadotropin are diagnostic marker for _________ and __________
Fertility and menstrual cycles disorder
Premature menopause ( inc or dec FSH?)
Inc FSH & inc LH after menopause =
Lack of estrogen
function of FSH in male and female
Female: ovulation and follicular growth
fuction of LH in male
Helps leydig cells produce ma testosterone
Function of of LH in female?
Necessary for ovulation & follicular growth
Thyroid- stimulating hormone is also known as?
Main stimulus for uptake of iodide by thyroid gland
Controls the rate of secretion of the thyroxine & triiodothyronine
Acts to increase the number & size of follicular cells
Stimulate Thyroid hormone synthesis?
Adenocorticotropic hormone is aka?
Single chain structure w/o disulfide bonds
ACTH stimulates adrenal cortex to secrete ___________?
Decrease cortisol production = (inc or dec) ACTH?
ACTH deficiency leads to atrophy of _________________ & ___________?
Zona glomerulosa and Zona reticularis
Inc ACTH in what diseases?
After protein meals
Diurnal rhythm of ACTH?
Inc 6-8 am
Dec. 8-11 pm
Spx for ACTH should be collected in?
Prechilled plastic tubes (ACTH adhere)
Also known as stress hormone
Function of prolactin?
breast growth during pregnancy
Milk secretory activity
Stimulated by TSH?
Inhibited by dopamine?
Causes of hyperprolactenemia?
Medication (phenothiazine, reserpine & methyl dopa)
Disruption of the pituitary stalk which interrupts flow of dopamine
Physiologic stress ( exercise & seizure)
Disorders in Prolactin?
Pituitary tumor w/c directly secretes prolactin?
Cause menstrual irregularity/ amenorrhea, infertility or galactorrhea
Reduced libido or erectile dysfunction
Lactation occurring in women w/ hormonal prolactin levels
What part of the pituitary secretes adh & oxytocin?
Posterior pituitary gland
ADH is synthesized where?
Oxytocin is synthesized where?
Para ventricular nuclei
Function of oxytocin?
Lactation (milk let-down reflex)
Stimulator of uterine smooth muscle
Synthetic oxytocin used to enhance labor contraction
Linked to maternal nurturing behavior and mother infant bonding
____________ Regulates water excretion in the renal tubules (________&_________)
Distal convoluted tubule & collecting duct
Assists in water balance
Potent professor agent & affects blood clotting
ADH increases what factor?
FACTOR VII & VWF
Secretion of Anti-diuretic hormone is regulated by __________& ______________?
Inc osmolality (>_________) = (inc or dec. ADH?)
>295mosm/kg = inc ADH
Decrease osmolality (
<284mosm/kg = decrease ADH
dec Bloop pressure = (inc or dec) ADH?
It inhibits the release of ADH?
ADH deficiency and has clinical features of normoglycemia, polyuria w/ sp. gravity
Types of diabetes insipidus
True diabetes insipidus & nephrogenic diabetes insipidus
Also known as Hypothalamic/ neurogenic diabetes insipidus
True diabetes insipidus
___________ Pituitary gland does not secrete ADH and has a urine excretion of ________ L/ day
True diabetes insipidus & > 3 L/ day
Has normal ADH but abnormal ADH receptor and renal resistance to ADH
True diabetes insipidus
Sustained ADH production without know stimuli
Syndrome of inappropriate diuretic hormones
Clinical features of syndrome of inappropriate diuretic hormones
Dec urine vol
Dec plasma osmolality
N or inc urine Na
Dec plasma electrolytes
4 small gland located on the dorsal side of the thyroid gland
* must have 4 but some have 8 or 2
Smallest endocrine gland in the body
Parathyroid can also be found outside their normal anatomic side between ___________&___________
Hyoid bone in the neck and mediastinum
Regulators if Calcium metabolism
*also regulates phosphate matabolism
Parathyroid hormone is aka?
Parathormone or parathyrin
___________ is a peptide hormone that inc. plasma calcium
PTH is responsible for monitoring ______________ & ______________
Plasma calcium and phosphate
Causes increase in Plasma calcium
Enhancing renal reabsorption of calcium
It releases Parathyroid hormone
It contains receptors for calcium
Decrease in plasma calcium level mediates _______________
Release of PTH
It inhibits PTH
Vit D It is a hormone derived from ___________?
Endogenous source of vit D
Skin exposure to sun
Exogenous source of vit D3
Exogenous source of vit D2
In skin ____________ is converted to vit. D3 after exposure to ___________
7 dehydrocholesterol & UVB rays
In the liver vitamin D3 is converted to ______________ by _____________
25-hydroxy vit D3 by 25 hydroxylase
In the kidney 25-OH is converted to ____________ by ____________ under the influence of parathyroid hormone
1,25 dihydroxy vit D bye 1a-hydroxylase
____________ is convert into D2 after irradiation
Line the liver vit D2 is converted to ____________ by 25-hydroxylase
1,25 (OH)2 D is aka
Activated vit D
Function of activated vit D or 1,25- (OH)2 D
Ca absorption in kidney,inestine, bone reabsorption
Differentiate osteoclasts precursor into osteoclasts
Function of calcium homeostasis
Blood coagulation cascade
Helps maintain blood pressure
Organs involved in calcium homeostasis
Source of calcium diet
(inc or dec) PTH = (inc or dec) calcium
Inc PTH = inc Calcium
Bone deposition is promoted by _________
(Inc or dec) calcitonin = (inc or dec) calcium
Inc calcitonin = dec calcium
Intestinal absorption is induced by ________