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Flashcards in Hypo,pit... Deck (150):
1

Integrative center for many homeostatic circuits?

Hypothalamus

2

Hypothalamus is located in the walls and floors of the ____________ and above the _________

Third ventricle
Pituitary gland

3

Hypothalamus is connected to the posterior pituitary by?

Infundibulum

4

3 types of inputs/ afferent

Neuronal, hormonal, local conditions

5

Has sensor for tempt osmolality

Local conditions

6

Outputs

Autonomic nervous system, limbic system, pituitary

7

3 functions of hypothalamus

•direct control of the autonomic nervous system
•communication with the limbic system
• hormonal control of endocrine system

8

Prolactin inhibitory hormone

Dopamine

9

master gland?

Pituitary gland

10

pituitary gland is also know as?

Hypophysis

11

The main body of pituitary is contained in a small cavity called?

Sella turcica or turkish saddle

12

Anterior pituitary gland is alaso known as?

Adenohypophysis

13

Hormoes which target other endocrine gland?

Anterior pituitary gland

14

Part of pituitary gland that has little function capacity?

Intermediate lobe or pars intermedialis

15

Posterior pituitary gland is also known as?

Neurohypophysis

16

Posterior pituitary gland secretes _______ & __________?

Oxytocin and Vasopressin (ADH)

17

May be peptides or glycoproteins?

Anterior pituitary Gland

18

What type of cells secretes growth hormone?

Somatotropes

19

What type of cells secretes prolactin?

Lactotropes or mammotropes

20

What type of cells secretes TSH?

Tyrotropes

21

What type of cells secretes FSH and LH?

Gonadotropes

22

What type of cells secretes ACTH

Corticotropes

23

2 classification of hormone?

Tropic and Direct effector

24

Acts specifically for another endocrine gland?

Tropic hormones

25

Acts directly on peripheral tissue?

Direct effector hormone

26

Example of direct effector hormone?

GH & PRl

27

Also called Somatotropin?

GH

28

Promotes growth of the body affection the protein hormone formation, cell multiplication and differentiation

GH

29

Secretion of GH occurs every?

2-3 hrs

30

Peaks of GH?

Onset of sleep

31

Growth hormone is inhibited by?

Somatostatin or somatomedin C

32

Influence both anabolic and catabolic process?

Growth hormone

33

Also known as amphibolic hormone?

GH

34

Amphibolic hormones allows effective transition from _________ to __________ without shortage of subtrates

Fed state
Fasting state

35

Ut directly antagonize effect of insulin on glucose metabolism

Amphibolic hormone

36

It provide hepatic gluconeogenesis

Amphibolic hormone

37

it stimulates lipolysis

Amphibolic hormone

38

Amphibolic hormone enhances protein synthesis in __________

Skeletal muscle and other tissue

39

It stimulates production of IGF1

Amphibolic hormone

40

It inhibits lipolysis

IGF-1

41

Examples of stimulators of GH

Meals, Excercise, Sleep and hypoglycemia

42

Give inhibitors of GH

Glucose loading, epinephrine, emotional/pyschogenic stress, Nutritional deficiencies, insulin def

43

Examples of GH disorders

Acromegaly & Gigantism

44

It is the overproduction of GH (______ng/ml)

Acromegaly (>50ng/mL)

45

Acromegaly is usually caused by _______?

Pituitary tumors

46

Give clinical features of acromegaly

Organimegaly (enlarged heart & liver)
Enlargement of extremities
Hyperhidrosis (inc. sweating)
Skin tags
Joint disease
DM

47

Treatment for acromegaly?

Tumor ablation & Gh suppression

48

Extreme tall sutures; GH excess occurs before epiphyseal fusion is complete

Gigantism

49

Causes of GH deficiency

Familial
Tumor such as craniopharyngioma
Aging
Genetic mutations in GHRH OR GH gene
Abnormalities of pituitary gland

50

Clinical features of GH def. in children (pituitary dwarfism)

Short suture
Low growth velocity
Immature facial appearance
Increase adiposity
Retarded bone age

51

Clinical feature of Gh def. in adults

Reduced muscle mass
Inc. adiposity
Osteoporosis/ dec bone density
Dyslipidemia

52

Treatments for Gh def.

GH replacement therapy
Surgical removal of tumor

53

Specimen for GH test?

Fasting serum

54

Give GH deficiency tests

Insulin tolerance test
Arguments stimulation test

55

Gold standard for Gh def. test?

Insulin Tolerance test

56

GH NV: ________ adults
________ children

> 5 ng/ml
>10 ng/ml

57

What is the test for GH production?

Oral glucose loading

58

What kind of fasting for oral glitches loading?

Overnight fast

59

How many g if glucose load?

100g

60

Measure GH at how many mins?

0, 60 & 120 mins after glucose ingestion

61

Result of GH in normal ppl after taking oral glucose loading?

Undetectable GH lvl

62

Result of GH in ppl w/ acromegaly after taking oral glucose loading?

Increase GH lvl

63

Control the growth of the ovary and testes and the hormonal and reproductive activities?

Gonadotropins ( FSH & LH)

64

Gonadotropin are diagnostic marker for _________ and __________

Fertility and menstrual cycles disorder

65

Premature menopause ( inc or dec FSH?)

Inc FSH

66

Inc FSH & inc LH after menopause =

Lack of estrogen

67

function of FSH in male and female

Male: spermatogenesis
Female: ovulation and follicular growth

68

fuction of LH in male

Helps leydig cells produce ma testosterone

69

Function of of LH in female?

Necessary for ovulation & follicular growth

70

Thyroid- stimulating hormone is also known as?

Thyrotropin

71

Main stimulus for uptake of iodide by thyroid gland

TSH

72

Controls the rate of secretion of the thyroxine & triiodothyronine

TSH

73

Acts to increase the number & size of follicular cells

TSH

74

Stimulate Thyroid hormone synthesis?

TSH

75

Adenocorticotropic hormone is aka?

Corticotropin

76

Single chain structure w/o disulfide bonds

ACTH

77

ACTH stimulates adrenal cortex to secrete ___________?

Glucocorticoids

78

Decrease cortisol production = (inc or dec) ACTH?

Increase

79

ACTH deficiency leads to atrophy of _________________ & ___________?

Zona glomerulosa and Zona reticularis

80

Inc ACTH in what diseases?

Addison's dse
Ectopic tumors
After protein meals

81

Diurnal rhythm of ACTH?

Inc 6-8 am
Dec. 8-11 pm

82

Spx for ACTH should be collected in?

Prechilled plastic tubes (ACTH adhere)

83

Also known as stress hormone

Prolactin

84

Function of prolactin?

breast growth during pregnancy
Milk secretory activity

85

Stimulated by TSH?

Prolactin

86

Inhibited by dopamine?

Prolactin

87

Causes of hyperprolactenemia?

Medication (phenothiazine, reserpine & methyl dopa)
Disruption of the pituitary stalk which interrupts flow of dopamine
Physiologic stress ( exercise & seizure)

88

Disorders in Prolactin?

Prolactinoma
Idiopathic galactorrhea

89

Pituitary tumor w/c directly secretes prolactin?

Prolactinoma

90

Cause menstrual irregularity/ amenorrhea, infertility or galactorrhea
Reduced libido or erectile dysfunction

Prolactinoma

91

Lactation occurring in women w/ hormonal prolactin levels

Idiopathic galactorrhea

92

What part of the pituitary secretes adh & oxytocin?

Posterior pituitary gland

93

ADH is synthesized where?

Supraoptic nuclei

94

Oxytocin is synthesized where?

Para ventricular nuclei

95

Function of oxytocin?

Lactation (milk let-down reflex)
Stimulator of uterine smooth muscle

96

"Fergusson reflex"

Oxytocin

97

Synthetic oxytocin used to enhance labor contraction

Pitocin

98

Linked to maternal nurturing behavior and mother infant bonding

Pitocin

99

____________ Regulates water excretion in the renal tubules (________&_________)

ADH
Distal convoluted tubule & collecting duct

100

Assists in water balance

ADH

101

Potent professor agent & affects blood clotting

ADH

102

ADH increases what factor?

FACTOR VII & VWF

103

Secretion of Anti-diuretic hormone is regulated by __________& ______________?

Hypothalamic osmoreceptors
Vascular baroreceptors

104

Inc osmolality (>_________) = (inc or dec. ADH?)

>295mosm/kg = inc ADH

105

Decrease osmolality (

<284mosm/kg = decrease ADH

106

dec Bloop pressure = (inc or dec) ADH?

Increase ADH

107

It inhibits the release of ADH?

Ethanol

108

ADH deficiency and has clinical features of normoglycemia, polyuria w/ sp. gravity
Polydipsia
Occasional polyphagia

Diabetic insipidus

109

Types of diabetes insipidus

True diabetes insipidus & nephrogenic diabetes insipidus

110

Also known as Hypothalamic/ neurogenic diabetes insipidus

True diabetes insipidus

111

___________ Pituitary gland does not secrete ADH and has a urine excretion of ________ L/ day

True diabetes insipidus & > 3 L/ day

112

Has normal ADH but abnormal ADH receptor and renal resistance to ADH

True diabetes insipidus

113

Sustained ADH production without know stimuli

Syndrome of inappropriate diuretic hormones

114

Clinical features of syndrome of inappropriate diuretic hormones

Dec urine vol
Dec plasma osmolality
N or inc urine Na
Dec plasma electrolytes

115

4 small gland located on the dorsal side of the thyroid gland

Parathyroid gland
* must have 4 but some have 8 or 2

116

Smallest endocrine gland in the body

Parathyroid gland

117

Parathyroid can also be found outside their normal anatomic side between ___________&___________

Hyoid bone in the neck and mediastinum

118

Regulators if Calcium metabolism

Parathyroid hormone
Calcitonin
Vitamin D
*also regulates phosphate matabolism

119

Parathyroid hormone is aka?

Parathormone or parathyrin

120

Hypercalcemic hormone

Parathyroid hormone

121

___________ is a peptide hormone that inc. plasma calcium

Parathyroid Hormone

122

PTH is responsible for monitoring ______________ & ______________

Plasma calcium and phosphate

123

Causes increase in Plasma calcium

Bone resorption
Enhancing renal reabsorption of calcium
Intestinal absorption

124

It releases Parathyroid hormone

Chief cells

125

It contains receptors for calcium

Chief cells

126

Decrease in plasma calcium level mediates _______________

Release of PTH

127

It inhibits PTH

hypercalcemia

128

Vit D It is a hormone derived from ___________?

Cholesterol

129

Endogenous source of vit D

Skin exposure to sun

130

Exogenous source of vit D3

Internal organs
Seafoods
Fortified milk

131

Exogenous source of vit D2

Edible mushrooms

132

In skin ____________ is converted to vit. D3 after exposure to ___________

7 dehydrocholesterol & UVB rays

133

In the liver vitamin D3 is converted to ______________ by _____________

25-hydroxy vit D3 by 25 hydroxylase

134

In the kidney 25-OH is converted to ____________ by ____________ under the influence of parathyroid hormone

1,25 dihydroxy vit D bye 1a-hydroxylase

135

____________ is convert into D2 after irradiation

Ergosterol

136

Line the liver vit D2 is converted to ____________ by 25-hydroxylase

25-hydroxyl

137

7-dehydrocholesterol aka

Provitamin D3

138

Provitamin D2

Ergosterol

139

D3

Cholecalciferol

140

D2

Ergo calciferol

141

1,25 (OH)2 D is aka

Activated vit D

142

Function of activated vit D or 1,25- (OH)2 D

Ca absorption in kidney,inestine, bone reabsorption
Differentiate osteoclasts precursor into osteoclasts
Bone mineralization

143

Function of calcium homeostasis

Enzyme cofactor
Blood coagulation cascade
Neuromuscular excitability
Helps maintain blood pressure

144

Organs involved in calcium homeostasis

Skin
Liver
Small intestine
Skeleton
Kidney

145

Source of calcium diet

Bone resorption
Bone deposition
Intestinal absorption
Bone/kidneys

146

Bone resorption
(inc or dec) PTH = (inc or dec) calcium

Inc PTH = inc Calcium

147

Bone deposition is promoted by _________

Calcitonin

148

Bone deposition
(Inc or dec) calcitonin = (inc or dec) calcium

Inc calcitonin = dec calcium

149

Intestinal absorption is induced by ________

Vit D3

150

Primary target of PTH

Bone/kidney