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Flashcards in ID Deck (17):

congenital HPV infection presentation?

Hoarse cry, weak, stridor as HPV will infect stratified squaous epithelium in the true vocal cords


What does DNA pol I and III do?

Pol I: 5-3 exonuclease activity
Pol III: has 5-3 polymerase, and 3-5 exonuclease activity (proofreading)


Pt with HIV and confirmed HLA B57:01 positive. Which medication will they react poorly to?

Abavavir: allergic reaction that develops in 2-8% of patients with HLA B57:01. Cause type 4 hypersensitivity reaction with fever, malaise, GI symptoms, and delayed rash.


MRSA treatments

Vanc, daptomycin (depolarizes cellular mebrane by creating transmembrane channels), linezolid (inhibits bacterial protein syntehsis by binding to 50s subunit)


Apixaban, mechanism of action?

Direct factor Xa inhibitors. Blocks the active site of Xa preventing conversion of prothrombin to thrombin.


Pt HIV positive and undergoing chemotherapy. Blood cultures grow pseudohyphae producing yeast species with ability to form germ tubes. Why did he get this infection?

Low neutrophil count. T cells prevent superficial candida infection where as neutrophils prevent spread of candida.


Rate limiting step in acyclovir activation?

acyclovir is phosphorylated by virally encoded thymidine kinase to monophosphate --> then to active triphosphate


IgA protease mechanism of action?

Adherence of bacteria to the mucosa.


For malaria infection, why do you use both chloroquine and primaquine?

All species of malaria come from the anopheles mosquito --> liver to replicate --> release merozoites into the bloodstream--> infect erythrocites. P vivax and ovale form latency in hepatocytes in the form of hyponozoites. Chloriquine is for bloodstream, primaquine is for hypnozoites.


Which virus has partially doule stranded circular DNa with viral RNA dependent DNA polymerase?

Hep B


Echinococcus granulosus?

A hydatid cysts that commonly affects the liver. They implant into capillaries and trigger inflammatory reaction--> treat with surgery or chemo, and beaware that spilling of cyst can cause anaphylactic shock


Pt with chills fatigue, bilateral lung crackles, and palpable splenomegaly

Intraerythrocytic ring inclusions is suggestive for plasmodium and baesia that transmitted via the ixodes tick


Rifampin side effects and resistance mechanism?

red urine and eyes, by altering DNA dependent RNA polymerase


Increase the risk of vertical transmission of Hep B?

HBeAg positive increases the neonate's risk of infection to 95%


RPR test mechanism

Mix ot serum with caardiolipin, cholesterol and lecithin --> aggregation= presence of cardiolipin antibodies in the patient's serum. Detects antibodies to human cellular lipids released after destruction by T pallidum


What virulence factor in E coli causes sepsis?

Lipid a. LPS contains o antigen, core polysaccharide, and lipid A. Lipid A activates macrophages and granulocytes --> IL1, PG, TNF alpha, inteferon


Zidovudine MOA?

nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor binds to reverse transcriptase and incorporated into viral genome as thymidine analog.