Flashcards in II. Mesopotamian Civilization, III Ancient Egyptian Period Deck (64):
Known as the cradle of civilizations because of enormous advances and contributions including domestication of animals, trade and coinage, legal government, potter's wheel, wagon wheel, alphabet, architecture, mathematics and astronomy, monotheism and monogamy.
Mesopotamian Civilization (4300-331 BC)
A sub-period of the Mesopotamian civilization that contributed the cuneiform and the Ziggurat architecture. Writing was invented during this period.
Sumerian (6000-4000 BC)
A system of writing first developed by the ancient Sumerians of Mesopotamia, from the Latin Word "Cuneus" which means 'wedge'.
The world's first literature that was produced during the Sumerian period.
Epic of Gilgamesh
A form of an ancient temple that was common in Mesopotamia. Artificial mountains made of tiered rectangular layers which rose in number from 1 to 7 in the course of Mesopotamian history.
The period under the Mesopotamian civilization where the world's first empire was established under a ruler named Sargon.
The Sargon's Empire was also called as _____.
The capital of Sargon's Empire.
Akkad or Agade
The ruler of the Akkadian Empire.
They constructed one of the largest Ziggurats in Mesopotamia at Ur.
An ancient empire which was ruled over by Hammurabi then later on by Nebuchadnezzar.
Babylonian/Chaldean (4000-700 B.C)
The famous law during the Babylonian period that demands punishment to fit the crime (an eye for an eye). Comprising of 300 statues written in Akkadian on 51 columns.
Code of Hammurabi
An entrance gate during the reign of Nebuchadnezzar to the Palace of Sargon; named after the goddess of love, fertility and war, it is faced with glazed bricks with rows of bulls and dragons; were flanked by great towers, and with Lamassu figures carved in stone, which in turn supported a semi circular arch covered with brilliantly-colored tile.
A Mesopotamian civilization that has palaces that were fortified citadels with Lamassu guardians.
A great stone statue of a human-headed winged bull.
A Mesopotamian civilization ruled over by Cyrus the great. Defeated the Babylonians and achieved an enormous empire.
The capital city of the Persian that was built by Darius I. Its name is from a Greek name meaning "city of Persians".
The son of Darius I who built a huge palace complex in Persepolis with an audience hall that could accommodate 10,000 guests.
A large hypostyle hall in Persepolis that was used mainly for great receptions by the kings. This hall contained 72 columns and 2 monumental stairways.
Apadana or Audience Hall
Ancient Egypt's religion wherein the Pharaoh is thought to be a god.
An ancient Egyptian system of writing with picture-symbols that allowed history to be written.
The Egyptian god of death, the patron of embalmers and the god of necropolis. With a Jackal figure.
The Egyptian god that was a protector against snakes and other dangers; depicted as a dwarf with features of a lion, Helper of women in childbirth.
The god of the Nile floor; depicted as a man with female breasts.
The goddess of children; depicted as a cow, or as a women with cow's horns.
The falcon-god; originally the sky god; He was the pharaoh's protector and also patron of young men. The son of Osiris and Isis
The great Egyptian goddess, wife of Osiris, mother of Horus. Goddess of the dead protecting coffins and canopic jars. Depicted as a woman wearing a sun disk.
The Egyptian goddess of truth and justice. Depicted as a woman with ostrich feather on her head.
The wife of Amon; originally the vulture goddess, later depicted as a woman.
He is known as the god who taught mankind the secrets of civilization. Today, he is honored by some Pagans as a god of the underworld and of the harvest. Depicted as a mummified king.
The god of Thebes; sacred animals, the ram and goose.
The ruler of the heavens. He was the god of the sun, the bringer of light, and patron to the pharaohs. He is depicted as falcon-headed.
The creator god of Memphis and patron god of the craftsmen. He is depicted as a mummiform man.
The god of storms and violence. He is the brother and murderer of Osiris. The rival of Horus and depicted as a pig, ass, hippopotamus, etc.
A rule in an Egyptian art where the face must look straight ahead and each side must be exactly like the other. Although the hands and feet are in profile, the eyes and shoulders are in front view.
Law of Frontality
In Egyptian art, male are depicted in what color?
In Egyptian art, female are depicted in what color?
The mythical beast of ancient Egypt, frequently symbolizing the Pharaoh as an incarnation as an incarnation of the sun god, Ra. It was represented in sculpture usually in a recumbent position with the head of a man and the body of a lion.
A carved stone case in which the linen-wrapped mummy was placed.
A system of column and lintel construction.
The first recorded artist of Western history, architect to Zoser. Enjoyed the status of a court official and was later deified.
An Egyptian funerary temple for commoners; Later developed into step pyramids which were placed on top of each other.
City of Mastabas
A massive funerary structure of stone or brick with a square base and four sloping triangular sides meeting at the apex; used mainly in ancient Egypt.
A series of mastabas, each smaller, and stacked on top of each other. It was built of fairly small limestone blocks. Much smaller than those used later at Giza.
A square shaft of stone with a pyramidal top used as a monument.
Post and lintel construction characterized as a forest of columns.
The temple for the dead Pharoah.
The temple for popular worship of the ancient gods.
Located on cliffs where they cut labyrinth passageways that led to ceremonial and burial chambers which were later replaced by temples.
A monumental gateway to an Egyptian temple, consisting of a pair of tower structures with slanting walls flanking the entrance portal.
An open court in an Egyptian temple.
A large hall having many columns in rows supporting a flat roof, and sometimes a clerestory prevalent in ancient Egyptian architecture.
A part of an Egyptian temple that contains a small shrine which was used as receptacle for the smaller statue of a god.
The plant symbolizing lower Egypt.
The column was made in several variations some in circular form representing the papyrus plant while others as ribbed with multiple stems. It suggests the presence of a temple and can have circular or ribbed shafts.
An Egyptian column used in non-secular buildings.
An Egyptian column used in the earlier times in Egypt and were at the inner side of the court.
What are the names of the great pyramids of Giza?
- Pyramid of Khufu
- Pyramid of Khafre
- Pyramid of Menkaure
A symbol of protection that is hewn out of a natural limestone with the addition of stone blocks; Molded into a human-headed lion with the face representing Khafre.1
The Great Sphinx
The first pyramid ever built, it is a stepped pyramid built to house the ka of Kind Zoser.
Stepped Pyramid of Zoser
The temple for the most famous female pharoah which composed of 3 large terraces connected to each other by ramps.
Mortuary Temple of Queen Hatshepsut
A temple that boasts of a hypostyle hall with 134 freestanding columns in 16 rows. The site is built by a sacred lake.
Great Temple of Amun, Karnak