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Flashcards in III. Indian Classical Music Deck (26):
1

This term came to be applied to the art music of the courts and temples of the Indian subcontinent when it came to urban centers in the 19th century. The term implies a long history, sophisticated techniques, and refined theory. Based on Raga and Tala.

Classical

2

Which two terms for the classical music of North and South India, respectively, developed distinctive systems about the 15th century?

Hindustani (North India) and Carnatic (South India)

3

What is the name of the long history of music theory that is preserved in written texts in Sanskirt and other languages. Music historians study them to reconstruct the thought and practices of the ancient and medieval periods. Texts reflect and represent a long-standing oral tradition.

Sangita Shastra (music technical works)

4

This was compiled before 400 ce, and is a compendium of theory on theater, dance, and music. It includes an elaborate theory of musical pitch (svara and shruti) that is still studied today. This was composed in tightly condensed rhyming verses so that it could be memorized and handed down in oral traditions.

Natyashastra

5

In the 14th century, this was the premier text of the medieval period. Its seven chapters became the basis for many later texts written in Persian and regional languages. The chapters cover pitch (Svara), melody (Raga), various techniques (Prakiranaka), compositions (Prabandha), rhythm (Tala), instruments (Vadya), and dance (Nrtya)

Sangitaratnakara

6

Indian word for pitch.

Svara (pitch)

7

Indian word for melody.

Raga (melody)

8

Indian word for various techniques.

Prakiranaka (various techniques)

9

Indian word for compositions.

Prabandha (compositions)

10

Indian word for rhythm. Means clap.

Tala (rhythm)

11

Indian word for instruments.

Vadya (instruments)

12

Indian word for dance.

Nrtya.

13

Which two men standardized the notation and theory terms in the study of music in North India?

Vishnu Digambar Paluskar and Vishnu Narayan Bhatkhade

14

Which academy in South India standardized Carnatic music theory?

Madras Music Academy

15

These are the melodies or, more precisely, the melodic structures of Indian classical music. Every _______ is a set of melodic motifs used for playing both composed and improvised material. The concept of _______ has excited musicians from all over the world for hundreds of years.

Ragas

16

In Hindustani music, each ______ is associated with a particular time of day and is only performed at its proper time.

Ragas

17

This is performed by a main vocalist or instrumentalists and is accompanied by a small ensemble. The main musician sits in the center. In Hindustani music, the drum will usually be a Tabla, and in Carnatic music a Mridangam and perhaps a Kanjira. Behind all the musicians will be players of the Tambura (tanpura) drone.

Ragas

18

How many Svaras (pitch) make up a scale? When the pitches are sung using their names, it is called "singing svaras" (Carnatic) or "singing in sargam" (Hindustani): Sa Re Ga Ma Pa Dha Ni.

7

19

A sequence of seen svaras make up a __________, which would translate as octave.

Saptaka (octave)

20

How many possible pitches in the Saptaka (octave) in both the Hindustani and the Carnatic system?

12

21

Indian word for microtone. Has multiple meanings when used to describe Indian music.

Shruti (microtone)

22

Indian word for ornament.

Gamaka (ornament)

23

This is a popular Tala of Carnatic music. Claps are done on 1, 5, and 7.

Aditala

24

In Hindustani music, there are two types of hand actions: a clap and a silent wave or palm-up touch on the knee with the back of the hand.

Tintal

25

These are terms for the teacher-disciple relationship at the heart of traditional learning in South Asia.

Guru (teacher) and Shishya (disciple)
Ustad (teacher) and Shagird (disciple) in Urdu

26

This term in North India is used for one's stylistic lineage. Means household.

Gharana (household)