Flashcards in Imm 1 - Immune System Basics Deck (30):
What are the primary lymphoid organs?
Bone marrow. Thymus.
What are the secondary lymphoid organs?
Lymph nodes. Spleen. MALT (Mucosa associated lymphoid tissue). Cutaneous-associated lymphoid tissue.
What do macrophages in the lymphatics do?
They filter and clean the lymphatic fluid.
Where is the site of B- and T-cell activation, proliferation, and differentiation?
What happens in the lymph nodes to B and T cells, and plasma cells?
Site of Activation, proliferation, differentiation for B and T cells. It is an important site where plasma cells synthesize antibodies.
Where do you find B cells in the lymph node?
B cells are packed in clusters in the cortex called follicle of cortex.
Where do you find T cells in the lymph node?
T cells are in the paracortex of the lymph node.
During massive cellular immune response (virus infection), what part of the lymph node enlarges?
Paracortex: there is a mass production of cytotoxic T cells.
Which cells do we find in the medulla of the lymph nodes?
We find Plasma cells in the medullary cords and macrophages in the medullary sinus.
What are the numerous location-specific MALT (mucosa associated lymphoid tissue)?
GALT (gut-associated lymphoid tissue: lymphoid follicles in the lamina propria of the intestine). O-MALT (Organized-MALT found in the Tonsils and adenoids). BALT (bronchus-associated lymphoid tissue in the upper airways and the bronchi). NALT (nasal-associated lymphoid tissue).
What is Peyer's patch?
A type of MALT found exclusively in the lamina propria of the illeum that extends into the submucosa of the ileum. It is unencapsulated lymphoid tissue. (This is how we differentiate ileum vs jejunum).
Which nodes do the lymphatics drain to in the arm and lateral breast?
Which nodes do the lymphatics drain to in the lateral side of the dorsum of the foot?
Popliteal lymph node.
Which nodes do the lymphatics drain to in the thighs?
Superficial linguinal lymph nodes.
Which nodes do the lymphatics drain to in the stomach?
Which nodes do the lymphatics drain to in the duodenum and jejunum?
Which nodes do the lymphatics drain to in the Sigmoid colon?
Colic lymph nodes which drain to the inferior mesenteric.
Which nodes do the lymphatics drain to above the pectinate line?
Which nodes do the lymphatics drain to below the pectinate line?
Superficial inguinal lymph nodes.
Which nodes do the lymphatics drain to in the testes?
Para aortic lymph nodes (because it is not a superficial structure, they descend directly from the internal body).
Which nodes do the lymphatics drain to in the scrotum?
Superficial inguinal nodes (because it is a superficial structure).
Which duct do the lymphatics drain to in the right arm and right half of the head?
Right lymphatic duct.
Which nodes do the lymphatics drain to in the body except the right arm and the right part of the head?
Thoracic duct (in the junction of the left sublclavin and internal jugular vein).
What are the characteristics of innate immune system?
Nonspecific like macrophages (attack anything). Responds fairly rapidly. No memory. Skin and other barriers.
What are the cells in the innate immune system?
Macrophages, dendritic cells, neutrophils, mast cells, esoinophils, natural killer cells and basophils. Also complement proteins.
What are the characteristics of Adaptive immune system?
Very specific. Has memory. Takes longer to get activated.
What are the cells that make up the adaptive immune system?
T-lymphocytes. B-lymphocytes. Circulating antibodies.
To which lymph nodes do the sigmoid colon and rectum drain?
Sigmoid: to colic nodes and later to inferior mesenteric nodes. Rectum: internal iliac nodes.
Where can B cells and T cells be found in the lymph nodes?
B cells: Follicles of the cortex. T cells: Paracortex.