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Unit 4 Biology > Immunisation > Flashcards

Flashcards in Immunisation Deck (11)
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1

How can vaccination immunity be developed?

By vaccination using antigens from infectious pathogens, so creating memory cells

2

what can antigens used in vaccines be?

Inactivated pathogen toxins, dead pathogens, parts of pathogens and weakened pathogens

3

What are antigen usually mixed with?

Adjuvant when producing the vaccine

4

When does Herd immunity occur?

When a large percentage of a population is immunised.

5

Why is establishing herd immunity important?

Reducing the spread diseases

6

Why are non immune individuals protected?

There is a lower probability they will come into contact with infected individuals

7

What does the herd immunity threshold depend on?

The type of disease, the effectiveness of the vaccine and the density of the population

8

What are mass vaccination designed for?

To establish herd immunity to a disease

9

When can difficulties arise with mass vaccination programmes?

When widespread vaccination is not possible due to poverty in the developing world, or when vaccines are rejected by a percentage of the population in the developed world

10

What is antigenic variation ?

when some pathogens can change their antigens

11

What can antigenic variation lead to?

Memory cells are not effective against them. Role and impact of antigenic variation in influenza