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Flashcards in Immunization Deck (28):
1

What is immunization?

rendering a person protected from an infectious disease

2

How does an immunization work?

-Can occur naturally by having this disease once-giving the immune system a memory of the disease
-once immunized if ever see antigen again get a more powerful, faster, adaptive immune response and don't become clinically ill

3

Two ways to induce/provide immunity to specific diseases

-passively
-actively

4

Passive immunity definition

transfer of active humoral immunity in the form of ready made antibodies from one individual to another

5

How can passive immunity occur naturally?

when maternal antibodies are transferred to fetus through placenta & breastfeeding

6

How can passive immunity be induced artificially

high levels of human (or horse) Abs specific for a pathogen or toxin are transferred to non-immune individuals (used to counteract effect of a toxin)

7

when is passive immunization used?

when there is a high risk of infection and insufficient time for the body to develop its own immune response or to reduce the sx of ongoing or immunosuppressive disease

8

How is passive immunity provided?

by giving preformed IgG Abs specific for the disease state trying to prevent

9

pros of passive immunization

works faster than active and protects during incubation period (give when not enough time for vaccine to work before disease starts)

10

cons of passive immunity

-is short term--gone when Immunoglobulin is gone
-if get exposed again and immunoglobulin is gone, you can get the disease
(it's not as effective as actively immunizing)

11

How is disease specific IgG prepared?

by exposing humans or animals to the disease, then harvesting the Abs they make in response

12

Why is human immunoglobulin preferred

fewer rxns & last about 3wks

13

animal immunoglobulin is used when....
What do you need to do with it?

animal used if you can't get human
-it has more runs & doesn't last as long as human
-need to test for hypersensitivity first b/c many allergic runs

14

What type of animal Ig causes least number of reactions

mouse

15

IgG available from horse source
(for which diseases)

-botulism
-snakebite
-black widow

16

diseases IgG are available for

-Hep B
-Hep A
-Measles
-Rabies
-Rubella
-Varicella
-Tetanus

17

Active immunization definition

induction of immunity after exposure to an antigen

18

how does active immunization work?

-Abs created by recipient and may be stored permanently
-vaccines
-usually series of injections/exposures over period of time
-large part of primary care
-not all that receive vaccination are immune

19

What are Live attenuated vaccines

weakened form of pathogen which replicates after administration to induce an immune response
-most viral vaccines invoke the use of live virus that has been chemically changed to decrease virulence (so it doesn't cause serious disease in people & so immune response is more like having disease)

20

Benefit of live attenuated vaccines

-immune response is more like having the disease
-usually get a superior response and typically doesn't require multiple doses
-often only need one dose (maybe 2) for lifelong immunity

21

weakened toxins are called...

toxoid

22

toxoid vaccines prevent

disease caused by bacteria that produce toxins

23

often toxoids are combined with_____ to prolong absorption

aluminum

24

Examples of live attenuated vaccines

-intranasal influenza
-varicella
-smallpox
-measles, mumps, rubella
-varicella vaccine
-varicella-zoster vaccine

25

How are killed, inactivated vaccines made and what are they prepared from?

made by inactivating/killing the virus
-prepared from whole bacteria/virus or fractional antigenic component of one

26

Examples of Killed vaccines

-TD
-Tdap
-HPV
-Influenza
-Pneumococcal
-Hep A
-Hep B
-Hep A/B
-Meningococcal

27

Conjugate vaccines

bacteria have antigens with outer coating of polysaccharides
-conjugate vaccines conjugate the polysachs to antigens that the immune system responds to well

28

seroconversion

-development of Abs in the blood that are measured after vaccine to see if immune
(not all vaccines have Abs to measure)