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Flashcards in Immunology Deck (48)
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1

Where are basophils and eosinophils found and what do they do?

Circulate in blood
Recruited to sites of infection

2

What do mast cells, basophils and eosinophils secrete?

Release chemicals such as histamine, heparin and cytokines

3

What do phagocytise cells do?

Ingest and kill Bactria and fungi
Clear debris from dead/dying tissues

4

Where are neutrophils found and what do they do?

Circulate freely in blood
Rapidly recruited into inflamed and infected tissues

5

What do monocytes/macrophages do?

Help limit inflammation
Tissue repair and wound healing
Involves in antigen presentation

6

What do dendritic cells do?

Mature and migrate to secondary lymphoid tissues and stimulate antigen presentation (adaptive immune response)

7

What are NK cells and what do they do?

Large granular lymphocytes
Kill tumour cells and virally infected cels
Kill anitbody bound cells/pathogens

8

What are B cells responsible for?

Production of antibodies

9

What is primary lymphoid tissue the site of?

Leukocyte development

10

What is secondary lymphoid tissue the site of?

Where adaptive immune responses are initiated

11

What is the lymphatic system?

System of vessels draining fluid from body tissues
Lymph nodes are initiated regularly along lymph vessels - remove pathogens and antigens from lymph

12

2 mechanisms of common cation in the immune system?

Direct contact
Indirect contact

13

What is the interaction between in direct contact?

Receptor:Ligand interactions
(Receptor if immune cell, ligand of pathogen)

14

What is indirect contact?

Production and secretion of cytokines
(Injured tissue cells and activated immune cells can produce and secrete cytokines)

15

What are cytokines?

Diverse collection of small proteins and peptides produced in response to infection

16

What is the general function of cytokines?

Coordinate immune system by ,ovulating behaviour of cells

17

Examples of cytokines?

Interferons
TNF
Chemotherapy
Interleukins

18

Functions of interferons

Antiviral functions

19

Function of TNF

Pro inflammatory

20

Function of chemokines

Control and direct cell migration

21

Local response to infection

Rubor (redness)
Calor (heat)
Tumour (swelling)
Dolor (pain)
Functio laesa (loss of function)

22

3 phases in response to invading pathogens

Recognition
Activation
Effector

23

What happens in regonitiom phase?

PRRs (pattern-recognition receptors)
Pathogen associated mole

24

IgA

2nd most abundant Ig type
Monomeric form - blood
Dimeric - great milk, saliva, tears, mucosal secretions

25

IgD

Extremely low levels in blood
Surface bound = BCR

26

IgE

Extremely low levels normally
Produced in response to parasitic infection and allergic responses

27

IgG

Most abundant Ig in plasma
Actively transported across placenta
4 subtypes

28

IgM

Surface bound monomer = BCR
1st Ig type produced in an immune response
( pentamer - present only in plasma/secretions)

29

How are B cells activated?

Encounter with antigen within lymph nodes
If signalled by T lymphocytes B cells rapidly proliferate
Differentiate

30

Function of antibodies

Identify pathogens
Recruit other immune components (complement, phagocytes, NK cells)
Neutralise toxins
Particularly important in defence against bacteria

31

Defect of haemopoetic stem cells

Reticular dysgenesis

32

Defects of lymphoid precursors

Severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID)
Failure of production of lymphocytes

33

Clinical features of SCID

Unwell by 3 months old
Persistent diarrhoea
Failure to thrive
Continuous infections
Unusual skin disease
Family history of early infant death

34

How long does maternal IgG protect baby for?

3 months

35

Most common form of SCID

X-linked SCID
Mutation of IL-2 receptor (inability to respond to cytokines)!
Produces immature B cells

36

Treatment for SCID

Prophylactic
- avoid infections (antibiotics, antifungals, no vaccine)
- aggressive treatment of existing infections
- antibody replacement (IV immunoglobulin)
Definitive
- stem cell transplant (sibling)
- gene therapy

37

What is DiGeorge syndrome?

Chromosomal deletion
Congenital heart defects
Cleft palate
Hypoparathyroidism
Psychiatric disorders

38

Clinical presentation of DiGeorge syndrome

Funny looking kid
- low set folded ears
- high forehead
- cleft palate, small mouth & jaw
- hypocalcaemia
- oesophageal atresia
- T cell lymphophopenia
- congenital heart disease

39

Investigations for DiGeorge syndrome

Absent or decreased T cells
Normal or increased B cells
Normal NK cell numbers

40

Management of DiGeorge syndrome

Prophylactic antibiotics
Aggressive treatment of infection
Immunoglobulin replacement
T cell function improves with age

41

Disorders of T cell effector function

Cytokines production
Cytotoxicity
T-B cell communication

42

Infections caused by issues with IL12 gIFN network

TB
Atypical mycobacteria
BCG infection after immunisation
Deep fungal infections (e.g. Aspergillus)

43

Where are mast cells found and what do they do?

Reside in tissues and protect mucosal surfaces

44

Clinical features of common variable immune deficiency

Recurrent bacterial infections
Autoimmune disease
Granulomatous disease

45

What does CRP show?.

Degree if inflammation

46

Functions of complement

Opsonisation
Inflammation
Chemotaxis
Membrane attack complex
Clearance of immune complexes

47

What is an antigen?

A substance which can cause an adaptive immune response by activating B cells and T cells

48

Where do adaptive immune responses occur?

Secondary lymphoid tissue