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Flashcards in immunology Deck (60):
1

primary immune response

occurs the first time an immune system encounters, generates memory cells with high specificity, can take 14 days

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secondary immune response

occurs following a previous encounter, more rapid, previously generated

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five types of immunoglobulins

IgG, IgA, IgM, IgD, IgE

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IgE

hypersensitivity (allergies and parasite), present in serum in lowest concentration of all Igs

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IgD

unknown function, found in B cells

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IgM

First Ig produced in immune response, most efficient complement fixing Ig. Pentamer

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IgA

Major Ig. Dimer

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types of vaccines

live attenuated, inactivated, subunit, toxoid

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live attenuated

similar to natural infection, stored in cool place, can cause disease in weakened immune system.

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inactivated

uses killed version of pathogen, may need boosters, will not weaken immune

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subunit

uses dead pathogen in pieces, strong specific response, may need booster, fine for weak people

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toxoid vaccines

uses a toxin made by the pathogen, tetanus, my require boosters, safe for weak.

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infants

cannot produce antibodies until 3-6 months

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innate

inborn, present at all times, responds immediately, responds uniform

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acquired

6 days to respond, antigen specific, keeps memory

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types of white blood cells

neutrophils, eosinophil, basophil

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neutropenia

decrease in neutrophils can cause a severe infection

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neutrophilia

increase in neutrophils, bacterial infection, drug intox, tissue necrosis.

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neutrophil function

move to site of pathogen engulf it and destroy it. Adherence, migration, phagocytosis, bacterial killing

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lymphocytes

includes b cell t cell and natural killer cells

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t lymph function

cell mediated immunity

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b lymph function

part of the humoral immunity can bind to antigen

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natural killer cells function

kill infected cells

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eosinophils function

reddish orange granules allergic disease, parasite infections, and chronic inflammation.

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basophils function

large dark purple mediators of the inflammatory response called mast cells

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monocyte

large macrophages function phagocytosis

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RBC should be

biconcave disc, 6-8 um, no inclusions, 4 heme groups, 4 globin chains

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RBC membrane

semi perm for water and anions. no cations pass

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hypoxia

tissues deprived of oxygen (EPO hormone)

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hematopoiesis

the process of producing RBC, WBC, and platelets. Occurs in marrow

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burr cells

could be sign of old blood

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immature RBC

reticulocyte

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sickle cell anemia

sickle cell

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schistocyte

cells lysing

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acanthocytes

irregular projections unlike burr

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tear drop

spleen taken over

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organ produces urine

kidney

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reasons for urinalysis screening

disease diagnosis, progression of disease, monitor treatments

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best for protein anal, microscopic anal, preg

first morning voided

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three safety

gloves, gown, wash hands

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things that go down with time urine

glucose, RBC/WBC, urobilinogen, casts, bilirubin, ketones, clarity, nitrites, trichomonas

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things that go up with time urine

odor, pH, and bacteria

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amber color

UTI

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Red urine

hemo, food dye, beets

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green urine

pseudomonas infection

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blue urine

clorets, drugs

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black urine

melsum, levodopa, homosetistic acid

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turbidity

clarity- bacteria, semen, increased cells

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foul ammonia urine

bacterial infection

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sweet urine

diabetes

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maple syrup urine

maple syrup urine disease

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mousy urine

PKU

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ph raised

vegatarian, vomiting, old sample

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protein raised

kidney disorder, exercise, hypertension

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glucose urine

diabetes

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ketones urine

diabetic ketoacidosis

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blood

kidney damage

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bilirubin

hepatobiliary disease

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leukocyte esterase

inflammation

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urobilinogen

hemolysis of RBC