Immunology Flashcards Preview

Summer Course > Immunology > Flashcards

Flashcards in Immunology Deck (29):
1

What are components of the Lymphoid System?

1. Lymph nodes
2. Lymphatics
3. Spleen
4. Thymus
5. Appendix
6. MALT

2

What are the four characteristics of circulating WBCs?

1. Margination
2. Amoeboid movement
3. Positive chemotaxis
4. Phagocytosis

3

Which WBCs are capable of phagocytosis?

Neutrophils, Eosinophils, Monocytes

4

Which WBCs contribute to nonspecific defenses?

Neutrophils
Eosinophils
Monocytes
Basophils

5

What are the functions of neutrophils?

Engulf pathogens or debris, release cytotoxic enzymes "respiratory burst"

6

What are the functions of lymphocytes?

Differentiate into T cells, B cells, or NK cells.

7

What are the functions of monocytes?

Enter tissues to become macrophages, engulf pathogens or debris

8

What are the functions of dendritic cells?

The KEY antigen presenting cell.
Pick up antigens in peripheral areas and present antigens in lymph nodes.

9

What are the macrophages in the brain?

Microglia

10

What are the functions of eosinophils?

Phagocytic, engulf antibody-labelled materials, release cytotoxic enzymes, reduce inflammation. Increase in allergic and parasitic situations.

11

What are functions of basophils?

Enter damaged tissues and release histamines and other chemicals that promote inflammation.

12

Normal WBC range?

4-10 k

13

Normal differential?

60% Neutrophils
No band
40% lymphocytes
a few M/E/B

14

Lymphocyte pedigree?

1. Hemocytoblasts
2. Lymphoid Stem cells
3. Lymphoblast
4. Prolymphocyte
5. Lymphocyte

15

Band cell (Basophil, Eosinophil, Neutrophil) pedigree?

1. Hemocytoblast
2. Myeloid stem cells (Multi-CSF)
3. Progenitor Cells (GM-CSF)
4. Myeloblast (G-CSF)
5. Myelocytes
6. Band cells

16

Moncyte pedigree?

1. Hemocytoblast
2. Myeloid stem cells (multi-CSF)
3. Progenitor cells (GM-CSF)
4. Monoblast (M-CSF)
5. Promonocyte
6. Monocyte

17

7 components of innate immunity:

1. Physical barriers (skin, sweat, mucous)
2. Phagocytes (neutrophils, monocytes, eosinophils)
3. Immunological surveillance (NK cells)
4. Interferons (proteins released by cells infected by viruses)
5. Complement system (MAC and opsonization)
6. Inflammatory response
7. Fever

18

What are the effects of inflammation?

1. Increased blood flow
2. Activate phagocytes
3. Increased capillary permeability
4. Activate complement
5. Clotting reactions
6. Increase temperature
7. Activate specific defenses

19

What are the 4 cardinal signs of inflammation?

Redness
Swelling
Heat
Pain

20

What are the steps of cellular response to acute inflammation?

1. Tissue damage
2. Mast cell activation (Release histamine and heparin)
3. Phagocyte attraction (release cytokines)
4. Removal of debris by neutrophils and macrophages. Stimulates fibroblasts.

21

Where are B cells found in lymph nodes?

Outer cortex and medullary cord

22

Where are T cells found in lymph nodes?

Deep cortex

23

What are actions of NK cells?

1. Recognition and adhesion
2. Realignment of golgi apparatus
3. Secretion of perforin
4. Lysis of abnormal cell

24

What are the 3 pathways of complement?

1. Classical (antibodies)
2. Alternate (fungi and bacteria)
3. Mannose-lectin (sugar coated bacteria)

25

What are toll-like receptors?

1. Part of innate immune system
2. Recognized patterns in microbial proteins, recognize lipopolysaccharides, flagellum, DNA from viruses and bacteria.

26

What are chemokines?

Give cells direction where they should travel. Direct immune cells where to go

27

What are cytokines?

Proteins secreted by immune cells for communication

28

What is chronic granuloma disease?

Deficiency in all phagocytes, not just neutrophils.
1. Phagocytes eat pathogens, but unable to make oxidative burst to kill them. Take bacteria back to lymph nodes, cause lymphadenitis.

29

What are examples of passive immunity?

1. Baby gets mom's antibodies
2. Plasma derived antibodies from plasma donations