Flashcards in Immunology Deck (29):
What are components of the Lymphoid System?
1. Lymph nodes
What are the four characteristics of circulating WBCs?
2. Amoeboid movement
3. Positive chemotaxis
Which WBCs are capable of phagocytosis?
Neutrophils, Eosinophils, Monocytes
Which WBCs contribute to nonspecific defenses?
What are the functions of neutrophils?
Engulf pathogens or debris, release cytotoxic enzymes "respiratory burst"
What are the functions of lymphocytes?
Differentiate into T cells, B cells, or NK cells.
What are the functions of monocytes?
Enter tissues to become macrophages, engulf pathogens or debris
What are the functions of dendritic cells?
The KEY antigen presenting cell.
Pick up antigens in peripheral areas and present antigens in lymph nodes.
What are the macrophages in the brain?
What are the functions of eosinophils?
Phagocytic, engulf antibody-labelled materials, release cytotoxic enzymes, reduce inflammation. Increase in allergic and parasitic situations.
What are functions of basophils?
Enter damaged tissues and release histamines and other chemicals that promote inflammation.
Normal WBC range?
a few M/E/B
2. Lymphoid Stem cells
Band cell (Basophil, Eosinophil, Neutrophil) pedigree?
2. Myeloid stem cells (Multi-CSF)
3. Progenitor Cells (GM-CSF)
4. Myeloblast (G-CSF)
6. Band cells
2. Myeloid stem cells (multi-CSF)
3. Progenitor cells (GM-CSF)
4. Monoblast (M-CSF)
7 components of innate immunity:
1. Physical barriers (skin, sweat, mucous)
2. Phagocytes (neutrophils, monocytes, eosinophils)
3. Immunological surveillance (NK cells)
4. Interferons (proteins released by cells infected by viruses)
5. Complement system (MAC and opsonization)
6. Inflammatory response
What are the effects of inflammation?
1. Increased blood flow
2. Activate phagocytes
3. Increased capillary permeability
4. Activate complement
5. Clotting reactions
6. Increase temperature
7. Activate specific defenses
What are the 4 cardinal signs of inflammation?
What are the steps of cellular response to acute inflammation?
1. Tissue damage
2. Mast cell activation (Release histamine and heparin)
3. Phagocyte attraction (release cytokines)
4. Removal of debris by neutrophils and macrophages. Stimulates fibroblasts.
Where are B cells found in lymph nodes?
Outer cortex and medullary cord
Where are T cells found in lymph nodes?
What are actions of NK cells?
1. Recognition and adhesion
2. Realignment of golgi apparatus
3. Secretion of perforin
4. Lysis of abnormal cell
What are the 3 pathways of complement?
1. Classical (antibodies)
2. Alternate (fungi and bacteria)
3. Mannose-lectin (sugar coated bacteria)
What are toll-like receptors?
1. Part of innate immune system
2. Recognized patterns in microbial proteins, recognize lipopolysaccharides, flagellum, DNA from viruses and bacteria.
What are chemokines?
Give cells direction where they should travel. Direct immune cells where to go
What are cytokines?
Proteins secreted by immune cells for communication
What is chronic granuloma disease?
Deficiency in all phagocytes, not just neutrophils.
1. Phagocytes eat pathogens, but unable to make oxidative burst to kill them. Take bacteria back to lymph nodes, cause lymphadenitis.