Immunology for Medical Students Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Immunology for Medical Students Deck (27):
1

List the cells of the innate immune system

Tissue Macrophages / Circulatory Monocytes

Neutrophils

Basophils

Mast cells

Eosinophils

Dendritic cells

Natural Killer cells

2

List the cells of the adpative immune system

T Lymphocytes

B Lymphocytes

3

What is the name of the stem cells that gives rise to Erythrocytes, Platelets, Lymphocytes and Granulocytes?

Haematopoeitic Pluripotent Stem Cells

4

Name the different tissue-specfic macrophages

Alveolar Macrophage (Lungs)

Mesangial Macrophage (Kidney Vasculature)

Kuppfer cells (Liver)

Osteoclast (Bone)

5

Which cells of the innate are found in the blood?

Monocytes

Eosinophils

Neutrophils

Basophils

Immature Dendritic cells

NK cells

 

6

Which cells of the innate are found within tissues?

Macrophages

Mature Dendritic cells

Mast cells

7

Where are the Primary Lymphoid Organs?

Thymus

Bone Marrow

8

Name 3 Muscosa-Associated Lymphoid Tissue (MALT)

Naso-pharyngeal lymph nodes

Tonsillar lymph nodes

Bronchial lymph nodes

A image thumb
9

What is the name of the Gut-Associated Lymphoid Tissue (GALT)?

Peyer's patches

10

What is the immunologial role of the Spleen?

It is the largest lymph node in the body and filters the blood to remove old/dying blood cells. It consists of red pulp and white pulp, the latter stores many lymphocytes.

11

True or False: The majority of lymphocytes are found in lymph nodes.

True

 

There are approximately 1-2 trillion lymphocytes found in lymphnodes compared to 5-10 billion in the cirulation.

12

Where does the lymphoid system eventually drain into?

Into the venous system via the thoracic duct into the vena cava.

13

Through which vessel can immune cells in the blood be recruited to a lymphnode close to the site of infection?

High Endothelial Venule

14

What are the 4 major systems of immunological molecules?

Complement

Antibody

Cytokines

Chemokines

15

What are the 3 pathways by which Complement can become activated?

  1. Classical Pathway
  2. Mannan-binding Lectin Pathway
  3. Alternative Pathway

16

What activates the Classical pathway of Complement?

Antibody binding to Antigen

17

What activates the Mannan-binding Lectin pathway of Complement?

Lectin binding to Mannose (Sugar residues) on the surface of the microorganism.

18

What is the end effector results of the Complement Cascade?

Formation of MAC to cause pathogen cell lysis

Production of Pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokies

19

What is the difference between Cytokines and Chemokines?

Cytokines act on cells to activate, suppress or modify their function.

Chemokines recruit immune cells to the site of infection along a chemotactic gradient - Chemotaxis.

20

Which chemokine receptors does HIV use to gain entry into lymphocytes?

CCR5 CXCR4

21

Define Antibody

Specific binding proteins for antigen, produced by activated B lymphocytes. 

22

Which antibody is present during the initial stages of infection?

IgM

23

Which antibody is present as a pentameric protein?

IgM

24

Which antibody is present in greater abundance after a second exposure to the same antigen?

IgG

25

Remicade is a monoclonal antibody against which major inflammatory cytokine involved in arthritis?

TNF-alpha

26

Which immune cell is involved in bridging the innate immune response with the adaptive immune response?

Dendritic cells

27

What is the name of the monoclonal antibody used in breast cancer?

Herceptin