List the cells of the innate immune system
Tissue Macrophages / Circulatory Monocytes
Natural Killer cells
List the cells of the adpative immune system
What is the name of the stem cells that gives rise to Erythrocytes, Platelets, Lymphocytes and Granulocytes?
Haematopoeitic Pluripotent Stem Cells
Name the different tissue-specfic macrophages
Alveolar Macrophage (Lungs)
Mesangial Macrophage (Kidney Vasculature)
Kuppfer cells (Liver)
Which cells of the innate are found in the blood?
Immature Dendritic cells
Which cells of the innate are found within tissues?
Mature Dendritic cells
Where are the Primary Lymphoid Organs?
Name 3 Muscosa-Associated Lymphoid Tissue (MALT)
Naso-pharyngeal lymph nodes
Tonsillar lymph nodes
Bronchial lymph nodes
What is the name of the Gut-Associated Lymphoid Tissue (GALT)?
What is the immunologial role of the Spleen?
It is the largest lymph node in the body and filters the blood to remove old/dying blood cells. It consists of red pulp and white pulp, the latter stores many lymphocytes.
True or False: The majority of lymphocytes are found in lymph nodes.
There are approximately 1-2 trillion lymphocytes found in lymphnodes compared to 5-10 billion in the cirulation.
Where does the lymphoid system eventually drain into?
Into the venous system via the thoracic duct into the vena cava.
Through which vessel can immune cells in the blood be recruited to a lymphnode close to the site of infection?
High Endothelial Venule
What are the 4 major systems of immunological molecules?
What are the 3 pathways by which Complement can become activated?
- Classical Pathway
- Mannan-binding Lectin Pathway
- Alternative Pathway
What activates the Classical pathway of Complement?
Antibody binding to Antigen
What activates the Mannan-binding Lectin pathway of Complement?
Lectin binding to Mannose (Sugar residues) on the surface of the microorganism.
What is the end effector results of the Complement Cascade?
Formation of MAC to cause pathogen cell lysis
Production of Pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokies
What is the difference between Cytokines and Chemokines?
Cytokines act on cells to activate, suppress or modify their function.
Chemokines recruit immune cells to the site of infection along a chemotactic gradient - Chemotaxis.
Which chemokine receptors does HIV use to gain entry into lymphocytes?
Specific binding proteins for antigen, produced by activated B lymphocytes.
Which antibody is present during the initial stages of infection?
Which antibody is present as a pentameric protein?
Which antibody is present in greater abundance after a second exposure to the same antigen?
Remicade is a monoclonal antibody against which major inflammatory cytokine involved in arthritis?
Which immune cell is involved in bridging the innate immune response with the adaptive immune response?
What is the name of the monoclonal antibody used in breast cancer?