Which cells secrete interleukin-1?
What are the effects of interleukin-1 secretion?
Acute inflammation; interleukin-1 induces recruitment of leukocytes, activates the endothelium to express adhesion molecules, and serves as an endogenous pyrogen
What are the effects of interleukin-2?
Interleukin-2 stimulates growth of helper and cytotoxic T cells
What are the functions of interleukin-3?
Growth and differentiation of stem cells in the bone marrow
Which cell type secretes interleukin-3?
Activated T cells
What are the functions of interleukin-4?
Promotion of B-cell growth and induction of class switching to immunoglobulin E and immunoglobulin G
What is the function of interleukin-5? By what type of cells is it secreted?
Interleukin-5 is involved in promotion of differentiation of B cells and induction of class switching to immunoglobulin A; it also stimulates production and activation of eosinophils; it is ecreted by Th2 cells
What is the function of interleukin-6? By what cells is it produced?
Interleukin-6 stimulates production of acute-phase reactants and immunoglobulins; it is produced by helper T cells and macrophages
Which cytokine is a major chemotactic factor for neutrophils?
Which cell type secretes interleukin-8?
Which cytokine, released by regulatory T cells, inhibits actions of activated T cells?
What is the function of interleukin-12? Which cells secrete interleukin-12?
Interleukin-12 activates natural killer and Th1 cells; it is secreted by B cells and macrophages
What cytokine that is secreted by Th1 cells stimulates macrophages?
Which cytokine, secreted by macrophages, is an important mediator of septic shock?
Tumor necrosis factor
What are the effects of tumor necrosis factor secretion? By which cells is tumor necrosis factor secreted?
Tumor necrosis factor mediates leukocyte recruitment and vascular leak; it is secreted by macrophages
Which cytokine stimulates bone marrow?
Which cell surface proteins are found on helper T cells?
CD4, TCR, CD3, CD23, CD40L
Which cell surface proteins are found on cytotoxic T cells?
CD8, TCR, CD3
Which cell surface proteins are found on B cells?
IgM, CD19, CD20, CD21, CD40, MHCII, B7
Which cell surface proteins are found on macrophages?
MHCII, B7, CD40, CD14, receptors for Fc and C3b
Which cell surface proteins are found on natural killer cells?
Receptors for MHC I, CD16, CD56
True or False? All human cells have major histocompatibility complex I.
False; mature red blood cells do not have major histocompatibility complex I
Which two types of immunoglobulins activate complement via the classic pathway?
Immunoglobulin G and Immunoglobulin M
What triggers the activation of complement via the alternative pathway?
Microbial surfaces (especially endotoxin)
What triggers the activation of complement via the classic pathway?
What triggers the activation of complement via the lectin pathway?
In the complement system, the plasma proteins C1, C2, C3, and C4 are important for the neutralization of what types of infectious agents?
The membrane attack complex of complement is especially important in the defense against what type of bacteria?
In the complement system, what is the function of the plasma protein C3b?
In the complement system, the activation of what two plasma proteins can cause anaphylaxis?
C3a and C5a