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Flashcards in Immunopharmacology Deck (22):

What is the innate immune system?

The first line of defence in the body


What cell types make up the adaptive immune response

B cells (plasma and memory cells)
T cells (Th and Tc cells)
NK cells (Natural Killer)


Where are immune cells found in the body

Lymph nodes/lymphatic vessels
Bone marrow


What are the two parts of the adaptive immune system

Humoral immunity
Cell-mediated immunity


What are the key features of humoral immunity

Acts against antigens; antibody mediated
Utilises B lymphocytes
Acts by circulating antibodies in serum; defends against extracellular pathogens/bacteria/virus


What are the key features of cell-mediated immunity

Acts against viruses/bacteria/fungi/parasites/cancer/transplants etc.
Utilises T lymphocytes
Acts by direct cell contact or secreted soluble products; defends against intracellular bacteria


What physiological VASCULAR changes occur during the innate inflammatory response

Dilation of small arterioles (increasing blood flow)
Increased vascular permeability (plasma leaks into inflamed area)
Mediators (PGs, histamine, PAF, bradykinin, NO) cause vasodilation and permeability.


What physiological CELLULAR changes occur during the innate inflammatory response

Chemical mediators produced
White blood cells move into inflamed tissues to help destroy microorganisms


What physiological changes occur during the INDUCTION phase of the adaptive inflammatory response

Lymphocytes primed, ready to recognise specific antigenic molecules
T helper cell regulate development of response (T1 - cell-mediated; T2 - antibody-mediated)


What physiological changes occur during the EFFECTOR phase of the adaptive inflammatory response

Antigen-bearing cells destroyed through action of secreted antibodies.


What physiological changes occur during the EFFECTOR phase of the adaptive HUMORAL response

Lymphocytes converted to Th2 cells.
Th2 cells stimulate B lymphocytes to convert to plasma cells.
Plasma cells enter blood, and secrets antibodies for antigen recognition/degradation.


What physiological changes occur during the EFFECTOR phase of the adaptive CELL-MEDIATED response

Lymphocytes converted to Th1 cells, which are converted to cytotoxic (Tc) cells.
Tc cells activate other immune molecules and kills antigen presenting cells.


Give some examples of factors that can induce the inflammatory response

Microorganisms (bacteria/viruses)
Radiation (heat, UV, radioactivity)
Biochemical damage (metabolic poisons, anoxia)
Mechanical trauma (scratch, cut)
Non-harmful factors (grass, pollen etc)


Give some examples of innate immunity

Cough reflex
Enzymes in tears/skin oil
Stomach acid


What are the two components of the innate inflammatory response

Vascular events
Cellular events


Give examples of unwanted inflammatory/immune responses

Schistosomiasis. most tissue damage/symptoms are due to immune response
Anthracosis (black lung disease). Caused by immune response to coal
Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS). Deaths are due to excessive immune response.


How do phospholipase A2 (PLA2) mediators work

Enzyme found in most cell types.
Stimulation of cells by inflammatory mediators/cell damage activates PLA2.
PLA2 metabolises phospholipids in the cell membrane as first step in forming:
Prostagladins, leukotrienes, platelet activating factor.


Describe the cascades activated by plasma factor 12.

PF12 found in blood plasma. When it leaks into tissues, comes into contact with extracellular proteins (e.g. collagen). This convers PF12 to Factor 12a.
Factor 12a activates protease enzymes in signalling pathways. This generates:
Bradykinin; 'complement' factors (can activate mast cells, or attach to microorganisms to degrade or facilitate degradation)


How do 'reactive' oxygen molecules act as a chemical mediator in the inflammatory response

Macrophages have enzymes that can synthesis:
Superoxide anion (O2-), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), Nitric oxide (NO) etc.
Kills microorganisms by reactions that cause damage to lipid/protein structure.
Can damage own cells.


Give some examples of pro-inflammatory cytokines

Interleukin 1-alpha and 1-beta
Tumour necrosis factor-alpha
Interferons (esp interferon-gamma)


What role do cytokines play in the inflammatory response

Cytokines are peptides synthesised/released by immune cells.
Can be pro- or anti- inflammatory
Cytokines bind to receptors on target cells, activated intracellular signalling pathways (promoting/inhibiting gene transcription in targen nucleus)


What chemical mediators are derived from mast-cells

Various receptors on mast-cell membranes can bind to:
IgE antibodies and some complement factors
When they bind to the receptor the mast cell releases:
Histamine, leukotrienes, PGD2, platelet activating factor (PAF)