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Flashcards in Imperialism Deck (49):

What is imperialism?

The takeover of a country by a stronger one with the intent of dominating its social, political, and economic life


Why did European countries want to own colonies?

-Natural Resources
-Markets to sell goods to
-Social Darwinism (to civilize the natives)
-To control trade routes
-Spread Christianity
-Worldwide naval bases


What empire ruled India before imperialism?



Who took over in India after the fall of the Mughals?

British East India Company


Who did the English hire to conquer India?

British officers and Indian soldiers


What is a sepoy?

An Indian soldier that is fighting for the East India Company


What rumor caused the sepoy rebellion?

The new bullet casings were greased with pork and beef fat


Why did that rumor upset the sepoys?

Muslims don’t eat pork, and Hindus don’t eat any meat, especially beef


Who defeated the sepoys after the East India Co. left?

The British Government


What is the Raj?

The time period that India was ruled by the British GOVERNMENT


What were the problems that Europeans had in trying to conquer Africa before industrializing?

-Terrain was impassable (mountains, deserts, etc)
-Rivers were dangerous
-Both sides had the same weapons
-Malaria and other diseases


What inventions were created to that allowed the Europeans to take over Africa?

-Maxim Gun


Describe how Africans were living before Europeans invaded?

There were hundreds of smaller tribes and ethnic groups, and they were used very little modern technology/were not industrialized.


How did David Livingstone create the urge to conquer Africa?

-His reports of a slave massacre prompted the Europeans to invade to stop it, and they never left again.
-He also mapped out much of the water routes that were used for the invasion


What kind of countries were invited to take part in the Berlin Conference? Who was not invited?

Powerful European countries were invited, African countries were not


What was the purpose of the Berlin Conference?

To split up Africa without going to war with each other


What determined how much of Africa each country got at the Berlin Conference?

The amount of military and economic power the country had


What two African countries didn’t get taken over by the Europeans?

Liberia, Ethiopia


What did Europeans consider when deciding which areas to claim?

Natural Resources


What did they ignore when carving up Africa?

Tribal boundaries and ethnic groupings


Why did the plan to sell goods to Africans not work out for the Europeans?

The didn’t use currency


What is a cash crop?

A crop grown to sell for profit


What are four examples of cash crops?

coffee, cacao, peanuts, rubber, cotton, opium, indigo, etc.


What was different about Menelik II’s method of fighting the Europeans?

He was able to fight the Europeans with their own kind of weapons


How did African tribes react to colonization overall?

Sustained violent resistance


What were four positives of imperialism in Africa?

-Less local warfare
-Better health, sanitation, and medicine
-Better life expectancy and literacy rates
-Better technology


What were five negatives of imperialism in Africa?

-Lost independence and were used for forced labor
-Many people died from new diseases, resistance movements, and famine
-Africans never got the economic benefit of its resources
-Totally destroyed African leadership, and put nothing in place when Europeans left
-Dividing lines between tribes torn apart some ethnic groups, forced enemies to become allies, and set up


What empire owned most of the Middle East from 500-1800 b.c.e.?

The Ottoman Empire


Describe the Ottoman Empire at its peak.

It was the center of power, culture, and science for hundreds of years during the Dark Ages.


Why did the Ottomans begin to fall behind the Europeans?

Lack of progress due to infighting and corruption


Why did the Europeans want control of the Middle East?

Control of trade routes that connect the Atlantic and Indian Oceans, as well as oil eventually


Define Geopolitics?

An area is seen as important because its location has strategic value to another country


Who joined the Ottomans, and why would they do that?

France and Britain, so they could be the ones to take over the Crimean Peninsula instead of Russia


What was the major difference in the European armies compared to the Russian army?

England and France had a smaller but industrialized and modern army, while Russia’s was old and huge


What happened after the war to the Ottoman Empire?

They lost land to the Europeans and independence movements


What did the Crimean War prove to the rest of the world?

That countries need to industrialize or be taken over by the Europeans


How did the Egyptians try to modernize their country?

Built the Suez Canal
Started to plant cash crops and irrigation systems
Updated communication and transportation networks


How much did that cost? Where did they get that money?

500 billion dollars, European banks


How did the British use the debt to take over?

Britain used Egypt’s inability to pay its debt to force their way into the Egyptian government


Persia is known as which country today?



How did the Persians try to raise money to modernize?

By selling oil and tobacco rich land to European countries


Why did that plan not work?

The rulers took all the money, and didn’t use it to modernize


Which two countries invaded Persia and split it into “Spheres of Influence?”

Russia and Britain


What is a “Sphere of Influence?”

A sphere of influence is any area in which one nation wields dominant power over a part of a different country


Explain how the movie Hotel Rwanda showed the issues that imperialism left behind.

The two ethnic groups were treated differently by the Europeans during imperialism. When the Europeans left, they left the mistreated group in charge (Hutus) which led to a genocide targeting the other group (Tutsis). This is an example of the problems of drawing national boundaries without any regard to the tribal differences of the area.


What do the elephant, coolie, and narrator represent in the reading “Shooting an Elephant?”

Elephant – Imperialism
Coolie – All native peoples
Narrator – All European countries


Know at least three additional parts of the story, and what they represent.

There's a ton of these, so look over your homework if you need help


David Livingstone

Scottish Minister who was the first European to explore the interior of Africa. His reports caused the Scramble for Africa


Menelik II

Ruler of Ethiopia who beat the Italians when they tried to invade