Important Terms and Concepts Flashcards Preview

Year 11 Biology > Important Terms and Concepts > Flashcards

Flashcards in Important Terms and Concepts Deck (37):
1

What does intercellular mean?

Fluid contained within the cell membrane

2

What does extracellular mean?

Fluid located outside the cell membrane

3

What does intracellular mean?

Extracellular fluid located in the spaces between cells in tissues

4

What are the 4 organic compounds?

- fats/lipids
- proteins
- carbohydrates
- nucleic acids

5

What do organic compounds have that inorganic don't?

Organic compounds contain both carbon and hydrogen, whilst inorganic compounds only contain one of each.

6

Define diffusion

the process of moving something from one area to another (inside and outside a cell) without energy (spread them all out to become even - process of a high concentration to a low concentration )

7

If diffusion active or passive transport?

Passive

8

What is active transport?

To go in the opposite direction (moving from a low concentration to a high concentration) requires energy (ATP)

9

What is the membrane composed of?

phospholipid biolayer

10

What does a phospholipid consist of?

A hydrophilic (attracted to water )head and hydrophobic tail (scared of water)

11

What can easily pass through the phospholipid biolayer and why?

Oxygen and carbon dioxide can pass through as they have no charge

12

What is osmosis?

The water form of diffusion - water moving from a high concentration of water to a low concentration (low solvent to high solvent)

13

What are glycolipids?

Chains of fats/carbohydrates hanging off the phospholipid biolayer used for communication between other cells

14

What is between the phospholipids?

cholesterol

15

What is exocytosis?

a process by which the contents of a cell vacuole are released to the exterior through fusion of the vacuole membrane with the cell membrane

16

What is endocytosis?

the taking in of matter by a living cell by invagination of its membrane to form a vacuole.

17

What are the proteins used for in the phospholipid biolayer?

used to transport matter through the phospholipid biolayer that cant pass through the lipids (potassium and sodium). Different proteins have different purposes (water transport, element transport and communication)

18

What is a hypotonic solution?

There is a higher concentration outside the atom than the solution (hypo - water)

19

What is a isotonic solution?

There is an equal solution outside and inside the atom

20

What is a hypertonic solution?

There is higher concentration inside the atom than outside in the solution (hyper kid)

21

What is the formula for total magnification?

Eye piece x objective lens

22

What is the formula for the size of a organism?

field of view (mm) / cells across field of view

23

What are the four things required for photosynthesis?

- Chlorophyll (green pigment inside a chloroplast = organelle used for photosynthesis)
- Light (red and blue - the sun)
- Water
- Carbon Dioxide

24

What is the formula for photosynthesis?

Carbon dioxide + water = glucose + water + oxygen

25

What do plants use glucose for?

Plants will convert glucose into ATP and use it to grow petals/seeds/etc, and to create active transport

26

What is the formula for respiration?

Glucose + oxygen = carbon dioxide + water + energy

27

What is the compensation point?

The compensation point is the light intensity at which the rates of respiration and photosynthesis are the same.

28

What impacts the rate of photosynthesis?

Light intensity (wavelength)
CO2
Water
Temperature (◦C)

29

Where does stage 1 of photosynthesis occur?

Occurs in the granum/thylakoids (inside the chloroplast)

30

What happens during stage 1 of photosynthesis?

- light energy is converted into ATP
- Water is converted into hydrogen ions and oxygen gas (which is then released)
- hydrogen ions are then used in the second stage

31

What is used to carry hydrogen atoms between stage 1 and 2?

A protein called NAPDH2

32

What happens during stage 2 of photosynthesis?

- uses carbon dioxide and hydrogen atoms to make water and glucose for plant
-

33

Where does stage 2 of photosynthesis occur?

occurs in the stroma

34

What is the order for classification?

Kingdom
Phylum
Class
Order
Family
Genus
Species

35

What is the name for the process of classifying an organism?

Taxonomy

36

What are the 5 different kingdom classes? What are 3 examples of each?

- Monera = e.g. bacteria, cyanobacteria
- Protista = e.g. algae, slime moulds, ciliates
- Plantae = e.g. flowering plants, ferns, mosses
- Fungi = e.g. mushrooms, moulds, yeast
- Animalia = e.g. mammals, birds, reptiles, fishes, insects, worms, molluscs

37

What does binomial mean?

'two names' - the name of an organism using the genus and species taxonomy