Flashcards in Important Terms and Concepts Deck (37):
What does intercellular mean?
Fluid contained within the cell membrane
What does extracellular mean?
Fluid located outside the cell membrane
What does intracellular mean?
Extracellular fluid located in the spaces between cells in tissues
What are the 4 organic compounds?
- nucleic acids
What do organic compounds have that inorganic don't?
Organic compounds contain both carbon and hydrogen, whilst inorganic compounds only contain one of each.
the process of moving something from one area to another (inside and outside a cell) without energy (spread them all out to become even - process of a high concentration to a low concentration )
If diffusion active or passive transport?
What is active transport?
To go in the opposite direction (moving from a low concentration to a high concentration) requires energy (ATP)
What is the membrane composed of?
What does a phospholipid consist of?
A hydrophilic (attracted to water )head and hydrophobic tail (scared of water)
What can easily pass through the phospholipid biolayer and why?
Oxygen and carbon dioxide can pass through as they have no charge
What is osmosis?
The water form of diffusion - water moving from a high concentration of water to a low concentration (low solvent to high solvent)
What are glycolipids?
Chains of fats/carbohydrates hanging off the phospholipid biolayer used for communication between other cells
What is between the phospholipids?
What is exocytosis?
a process by which the contents of a cell vacuole are released to the exterior through fusion of the vacuole membrane with the cell membrane
What is endocytosis?
the taking in of matter by a living cell by invagination of its membrane to form a vacuole.
What are the proteins used for in the phospholipid biolayer?
used to transport matter through the phospholipid biolayer that cant pass through the lipids (potassium and sodium). Different proteins have different purposes (water transport, element transport and communication)
What is a hypotonic solution?
There is a higher concentration outside the atom than the solution (hypo - water)
What is a isotonic solution?
There is an equal solution outside and inside the atom
What is a hypertonic solution?
There is higher concentration inside the atom than outside in the solution (hyper kid)
What is the formula for total magnification?
Eye piece x objective lens
What is the formula for the size of a organism?
field of view (mm) / cells across field of view
What are the four things required for photosynthesis?
- Chlorophyll (green pigment inside a chloroplast = organelle used for photosynthesis)
- Light (red and blue - the sun)
- Carbon Dioxide
What is the formula for photosynthesis?
Carbon dioxide + water = glucose + water + oxygen
What do plants use glucose for?
Plants will convert glucose into ATP and use it to grow petals/seeds/etc, and to create active transport
What is the formula for respiration?
Glucose + oxygen = carbon dioxide + water + energy
What is the compensation point?
The compensation point is the light intensity at which the rates of respiration and photosynthesis are the same.
What impacts the rate of photosynthesis?
Light intensity (wavelength)
Where does stage 1 of photosynthesis occur?
Occurs in the granum/thylakoids (inside the chloroplast)
What happens during stage 1 of photosynthesis?
- light energy is converted into ATP
- Water is converted into hydrogen ions and oxygen gas (which is then released)
- hydrogen ions are then used in the second stage
What is used to carry hydrogen atoms between stage 1 and 2?
A protein called NAPDH2
What happens during stage 2 of photosynthesis?
- uses carbon dioxide and hydrogen atoms to make water and glucose for plant
Where does stage 2 of photosynthesis occur?
occurs in the stroma
What is the order for classification?
What is the name for the process of classifying an organism?
What are the 5 different kingdom classes? What are 3 examples of each?
- Monera = e.g. bacteria, cyanobacteria
- Protista = e.g. algae, slime moulds, ciliates
- Plantae = e.g. flowering plants, ferns, mosses
- Fungi = e.g. mushrooms, moulds, yeast
- Animalia = e.g. mammals, birds, reptiles, fishes, insects, worms, molluscs