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Flashcards in Individual Differences Deck (31):

Describe the historical signs of intelligence tests with Binet and Simon

Devised test rather than sensory skills test items for abstract reasoning skills
Successful, inexpensive, could predict school performance
Mental age - performing at average level of child of particular age on test


What did Galton (19thC) believe intelligence came from?

Running in families due to genetic inheritance
To measure intelligence, used sensory processes - very bright people could have exceptional sensory acuity (RT/colour perception, sensitivity to sound etc)


Define reliability

Measurement consistency
Can check using test-retest reliability
Inter-rater reliability
To check have to use correlation coefficients (degree of relationship between two variables)


How did Terman and Stanford revise Binets test? (1916)

New scoring system based on intelligence
IQ - metal age divided by chronological age times 100


Define validity

Ability of test to measure what it was intended to measure
Content validity - how much the content of test is representative of the area it is to cover
Criterion-related validity = tests used to predict behaviour therefore have to estimate by correlating scores on test with scores on independent criterion (other measure) of trait being assessed


Evaluate evidence on the heredity-environment debate

Nature vs nurture
Intelligence is determined by genetic factors and the environment has no effect (McGurk 1975)


What evidence is there on the twin studies?

Minnesota study of twins raises apart Bouchard et al (1990)
IQs highly correlated
Similarities despite being separated from an early age and raised in different environments
Identical twins reared apart more similar
Adopted children more like biological parents in intelligence


What is group differences in intelligence?

Jensen (1969) ethnic differences due to heredity
African Americans score average 15 points less than caucasiens
But differences reduce over time so must be environmental causes (Williams and ceci 1997)


What are the differences between the psychometric, information processing and triarchical approach?

Psychometric- analyses test scores to describe structure of intelligence
(Numerical ability, reasoning, verbal fluency, spatial visualisation, perceptual ability, memory, verbal comprehension)
Information processing- process of intelligence rather than structure, how people mentally manipulate what they learn
Triarchic theory- meta components= control performance and knowledge acquisition components. Performance components= holds information in working memory. Knowledge acquisition components= processes in acquiring and sorting new information


What is the relationship between creativity and intelligence?

More creative people are more likely to have a high IQ
High intelligence, high motivation, high creativity (renzulli 2002)


Define giftedness and mental retardation

Giftedness= learn in a different way, driven to master (winner 1996), give evidence of high performance capability in areas such as intellectual, creative, artistic who require special services not ordinarily provided by schools
Mental retardation= intelligence well below average and significant limitations in daily living skills. Retarded development in most intellectual areas but superior ability in one e.g. Music


Define the term personality

Characteristic set of behaviours, attitudes, interests and capabilities
Useful to predict future behaviour
Distinguishes between people
"Consistent patterns of thoughts, feelings and actions that people demonstrate"Maddi (1989)


How do we evaluate the different personality paradigms?

Their influence and importance in the field
Ability to account for psychological phenomena
Usefulness in applied fields


What is the psychodynamic approach?

Main theorist = Freud
Emphasis on dynamic, biological processes especially those taking place in the unconscious mind


What is an instinctual drive?

Wishes, Desires, needs, hidden from conscious awareness


What is "id"?

Desires/impulses, operates on pleasure principle


Define ego

Reason, operates on reality principle


Define superego

Moral consciousness, operates on idealisation principle


Define libido

"Psychic energy" fuel drive (primary drives of hunger, sex, aggression, irrational impulses)


What are the different personality stages?

Oral stage (birth-12/18 months)= learn by doing everything from mouth e.g. Sucking thumb and making noises
Anal stage (12/18 months-3 years)= get praised for being potty trained and that positive reinforcement develops the personality
Phallic stage (3-6 years)= infants desire centres upon his or her genitalia as the erogenous zone, realising that male and female are different
Latent stage (between phallic and puberty) = little or no sexual motivation present
Genital stage (between puberty and death) = sexual intercorse


What can the oral stage stimulate?

Can lead to oral fixation in later life e.g. Nail biters and smokers


What can the anal stage stimulate?

The child's future relationship with all forms of authority. Early or harsh potty training can lead to an anal-retentive personality who hates mess, is obsessively tidy
Whereas, the anal expulsive underwent liberal toilet training routine, they like giving things away and is also messy, disorganised and rebellious


What does the phallic stage stimulate?

Sets in motion the conflict between erotic attraction , resentment, rivalry, jealousy and fear (Oedipus complex in boys and Electra complex in girls)
People considered it controversial (due to the boys desire for mother and to get rid of father
Girls= penis envy (creates tension for mother but then represses feelings and adopts female gender role


What does the latency stage stimulate?+

Most sexual impulses are repressed and sexual energy can be sublimated towards school work and hobbies


What does the genital stage stimulate?

Adolescent experimentation, the successful resolution of which is settling down in our 20s


Define free association

Psychoanalytic therapy where the client is asked to freely share thoughts, random words and anything else that comes to mind regardless of how coherent or appropriate their thoughts are


Define trait

Stable sources of individual differences that characterise a person


What are the main points of Allports theory?

Person dispositions= unique to the individual
But everyone has common traits
Cardinal trait= traits that are dominent e.g. Everything that person does would relate back to that trait e.g. Scrooge
Central trait= have 5-10 of those, everyone tends to have them and how we tend to describe people e.g. Kindness
Secondary trait= what a person generally does across a range of situations( might have one or two of these as they aren't that important)


What are the main points for Cattell theory?

Factor analysis= produces a matrix on how factors correlate with each other (for measuring underlying personality)
OCEAN= neuroticism, openness, agreeableness, consciousness, extraversion
Some biological basis to personality
Two levels of a trait (surface level and source - what is underlying that)


What are the main points for Eysenck theory?

Personality came from genetics
unstable= moody, likely to show conditioned responses (problems in the past)
Introverts= easy conditioned by punishment, chronically over aroused trying to get things down (extraverts are the opposite seeking stimulation)
Psychoticism= lacking in feeling and empathy (e.g. Schizophrenia)


What is factor analysis?

Statistical procedure for identifying common elements or factors underlying personality, reduces a large number of factors to a smaller set of combined ones