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Flashcards in Individual Variations & Age Considerations Deck (44)
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1

Define pharmacodynamic tolerance

- Occurs when the intrinsic responsivity of the receptor system diminishes over time. What most people think of with drug tolerance, like with opiods and alcohol. Need to keep upping the dose to get the same initial response.

2

Define metabolic tolerance

- Occurs when the body metabolizes drugs at an accelerated rate.

3

Define tachyphylaxis

- Occurs when response from a drug decreases with repeated dosing (ie Nitroglycerin). Needs to be a drug-free period of time for the body to rebuild effectiveness.

4

Any response a patient has to a _________ is based solely on patient's psychological reaction to the idea of taking the medication.

Placebo

5

Define pharmacogenomics

The study of how genes affect individual drug responses

6

Most research done in pharmacogenomics is related to _________ pathways.

CYP450

7

Name the 3 types of CYP phenotypes that get tested for within pharmacogenetics.

Ultra rapid metabolizers, extensive metabolizers, and poor metabolizers

8

Which type of phenotype represents normal metabolism?

Extensive metabolizers

9

When an active drug is administered to an ultrarapid metabolizer, what happens?

Decreased effect

10

When a prodrug drug is administered to an ultrarapid metabolizer, what happens?

Increased toxicity

11

When an active drug is administered to an extensive metabolizer, what happens?

Normal reaction

12

When a prodrug drug is administered to an extensive metabolizer, what happens?

Normal reaction

13

When an active drug is administered to an poor metabolizer, what happens?

Increased toxicity

14

When a prodrug drug is administered to an poor metabolizer, what happens?

Decreased effect

15

Alcohol is metabolized more __________ by women than men.

Slowly

16

Quinidine causes greater QT interval prolongation in _______.

Women

17

Some reasons for lack of adherence to drug regimens:

- Belief the drug will not work and concern as to whether they even need it
- Manual dexterity
- Visual acuity
- Intellectual ability
- Psychological state
- Attitude toward drugs
- Ability to pay
- Drug-drug interactions
- Drug-food interactions

18

____ % of folks do not take meds as prescribed.

30-60%

19

When in pregnancy is renal blood flow doubled and renal excretion accelerated?

Third trimester

20

T/F: Medicine does not cross the placental barrier

False

21

What drugs cross the placental barrier?

ALL OF THEM

22

Which drugs cross the placental barrier easiest?

Lipid soluble

23

Name three types of drugs that don't cross the placental barrier as easily

Protein-bound, ionized, polar

24

What is the process by which congenital malformations are produced in an embryo or fetus?

Teratogenesis

25

What percentage of all birth defects are caused by drugs?

1%

26

What percentage of all birth defects are caused by genetics?

25%

27

Name 3 contributing factors to drug contribution of teratogenesis.

- Stage of development of the embryo/fetus
- Amount of drug ingested
- Frequency of ingestion

28

When is the embryo/fetus the most vulnerable/susceptible to drugs during development?

Conception - week 2
and embryonic period (weeks 3-8)

29

What is occurring that can cause gross malformations during the first two weeks of embryo development?

Organ development

30

Name three ways to decrease the risk to an infant when the mother is taking medications while breastfeeding.

- Take drugs immediately after breastfeeding
- Avoid drugs with a long half-life
- Choose drugs that tend to be excluded from milk and are least likely to affect infant
- Avoid sustained released drugs
- Avoid hazardous drugs (duh)