What are toilets made from?
Toilets are made from pottery.
What is a ceramic material?
Pottery is an example of a ceramic material. A brick is a block of a ceramic material. Ceramic materials are compounds. They include metal silicates, metal oxides, metal carbides, and metal nitrides.
Name 7 properties of ceramics?
Hard - you can only scratch them with harder materials
Brittle - they break easily
Stiff - they are difficult to bend
Solid at room temperature, with very high melting points
Strong when forces press on them
Break easily when stretched
What do ceramics also have?
Ceramics also have similar properties to each other. They do not react with water, acids or alkalis
Are ceramics useful?
Ceramics have many uses. Their uses depend on their properties.
How are bricks a good ceramic material?
Bricks are strong when forces press on them. They are also durable and attractive. This makes them suitable for buildings.
How are ceramics a good electrical power-line insulators?
Ceramics do not conduct electricity. They are not damaged by water. This makes them useful for power-line insulators.
What do ceramics have that makes suitable for jet-engine turbine blades?
Ceramics have high high melting points. This makes them suitable for jet-engine turbine blades, which get very hot.
Give me one more use of ceramics?
Ceramics do not react with water alkalis or acids. This means that you can decorate them. This makes ceramics useful for plates, bowls, mugs and jugs.
List four properties of ceramics.
Ceramics are used as a building material.
Ceramics are good insulators.
Ceramics have very high melting melting points. Ceramics do not react with water acids or alkalis.
Why do ceramics have certain properties?
In ceramic materials a huge number of atoms join together in one big structure. There are strong forces between the atoms. This structure explains the properties of ceramic materials.
Explain why ceramics have high melting points.
You need a great amount of energy to break forces between atoms. This explains why ceramics have high melting points.
Why are ceramics very strong materials?
The bonds between the atoms are very strong. This is why they are hard. You can break some bonds when you scratch ceramic materials.
What are umbrellas, beach balls, and carrier bags made from?
They are made from polymers.
What is a polymer?
A polymer is a substance with very long molecules. A polymer molecule has identical groups of atoms, repeated many times.
What do different polymers have?
There are many polymers. Different polymers have different properties. Their properties make them suitable for their uses.
What makes natural polymers?
Plants and animals make natural polymers, including wool, cotton and rubber.
How do sheep help making polymers?
Sheep make wool from their fur, wool is a natural polymer. Wool fibres trap air between them. This means that wool traps heat, making it useful for jumpers and socks.
What do cotton plants make and how are they helpful?
Cotton plants make cotton fibres. Cotton fabric is strong durable and absorbs sweat. It is useful for summer clothing like t-shirts.
What do rubber trees produce and how are they helpful?
Rubber trees produce rubber. Rubber is flexible, waterproof and durable. These properties make it suitable for tyres
Why are synthetic polymers useful?
Synthetic polymers do not occur naturally. They are made in chemical reactions. There are hundreds of synthetic polymers. Scientists work hard to develop new polymers. Each polymer has its own properties.
What is the scientific name for polythene?
Poly(ethene) is the scientific name for name for polythene. There are two types of poly(ethene).
What do the molecules in low-density poly(ethene) (LDPE) do?
The molecules in low-density poly(ethene) (LDPE) slide over each other. This makes it flexible. LDPE is also strong. LDPE is used for carrier bags.
What do the molecules in high-density poly(ethene) (HDPE) do?
High-density poly(ethene) (HDPE) is also strong and flexible. It is harder than LDPE. Its surface can be very smooth. HDPE is used in artificial knee joints. Artificial joints also include metal, such as titanium.
What do both LDPE and HDPE have in common?
Both types of poly(ethene) fo not wear away or break down (decay) naturally. This property is very important for artificial knee joints. But the same property make sit hard to get rid of carrier bags.
What does PVC stand for and what is it?
PVC stands for Poly(vinyl chloride)which is waterproof, flexible and does not conduct electricity. These properties make PVC suitable for waterproof clothes and insulating electric cables.
What makes reinforced concrete so strong and what is it used for?
In constructing a new building, builders use reinforced concrete. Reinforced concrete consists of steel bars with concrete around it. Concrete is not damaged when forces press on it. But it breaks easily when stretched. Steel is not damaged by stretching forces. Together, steel and concrete put up with strong squashing and stretching forces.
What is reinforced concrete?
Reinforced concrete is a composite material. A composite is a mixture of materials. Each material has different properties.
Describe the composites properties.
The composite has properties that are a combination of the properties of the materials it is made up of.
What do scientists do with composites?
Scientists experiment with different mixtures. They develop composites with the best properties for particular uses.
What is bicycle frame made from?
A bicycle frame can be made from carbon-fibre-reinforced plastic (CFRP).
What is (CFRP) consist of?
The composite consists of two materials:
Carbon fibres, which are thin tubes of carbon. The fibres are woven into fabric.
A gluelike polymer, which is moulded into different shapes when soft.
Why do some cyclists prefer CFRP bicycles to steel ones?
Some cyclists prefer CFRP to steel bicycles because:
CFRP has a lower density, making bicycles lighter
CFRP does not rust
CFRP is very strong
You can mould CFRP into any shape
What are the disadvantages of CFRP?
CFRP has some disadvantages. Bicycles made from CFRP are expensive. If crashed, they are badly damaged.
The aeroplane airbus A380 contains around 20% composite materials. Name one of them and name three materials within it.
One of these composites is glass-fibre-reinforced aluminium. The materials in this composite include:
Thin layers of aluminium
Layers of glass fibre
A gluelike polymer to join the layers
What do bandages contain that help to kill bacteria?
Bandages contain nano-particles that help kill bacteria.
List three things that include nanpopatricles or might in the future.
Bandages, lightweight bullet–proof vests and materials that can capture carbon dioxide.
What are nanoparticles?
Nanoparticles are tiny pieces of a substance. A nanoparticle is made up of just a few hundred atoms.
What is the diameter of a nanoparticle?
The diameter of a nanoparticle is between 1 nanometre and 100 nanometers.
Can you see a nanoparticle with a normal microscope?
You cannot see a nanoparticle with a normal microscope.
What is a nanometer?
A nanometer is a unit of length. Its symbol is nm.
What is one nanometer compared to a metre?
One nanometer is one billionth of a metre, or 0.000 000 001m. The length of a 1nm compared to 1m is the same as the diameter of a marble compared to the diameter of the Earth.