Infant Reflexes and Normal Development Flashcards Preview

Neuromuscular NPTE > Infant Reflexes and Normal Development > Flashcards

Flashcards in Infant Reflexes and Normal Development Deck (21)
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1

What is the stimulus which triggers the Asymmetrical Tonic Neck Reflex?

What is the response to the stimulus?

What is the normal age of this response?


What are some ways this reflex can interfere with development if the reflex persists longer than normal?

Stimulus: head turned to one side

Response: arm and leg on face side are extended, arm and leg on scalp side are flexed, spine curved with convexity toward face side

Normal Age: birth to 6 months

Interferes with: feeding, visual tracking, use of hands bilaterally, rolling, development of crawling

2

What is the stimulus which triggers the Symmetrical Tonic Neck Reflex?

What is the response to the stimulus?

What is the normal age of this response?


What are some ways this reflex can interfere with development if the reflex persists longer than normal?

Stimulus: flexion or extension of head

Response: when head is flexed arms are flexed and legs are extended, when head is extended arms are extended and legs flexed

Normal Age: 6-8 months

Interferes with: ability to prop arms in prone position, attaining and maintaining hands and knees position, crawling reciprocally, sitting balance when looking around, and use of hands when looking down

3

What is the stimulus which triggers the Tonic Labyrinthine Reflex?

What is the response to the stimulus?

What is the normal age of this response?


What are some ways this reflex can interfere with development if the reflex persists longer than normal?

Stimulus: position of labyrinth in inner ear- reflected in head position

Response: in supine position, body and extremities are held in extension; in prone position body and extremities are held in flexion

Normal Age: birth to 6 months

Interferes with: ability to start rolling, ability to prop on elbows with extended hips when prone, ability to flex trunk and hips to come to sitting position from supine position, and often causes full body extension and interferes with seated balance

4

What is the stimulus which triggers the Galant Reflex?

What is the response to the stimulus?

What is the normal age of this response?


What are some ways this reflex can interfere with development if the reflex persists longer than normal?

Stimulus: touch to skin along spine from shoulder to hip

Response: lateral flexion of trunk to side of stimulus

Normal Age: 30 weeks of gestation to 2 months

Interferes with: development of sitting balance and can lead to scoliosis

5

What is the stimulus which triggers the Palmar Grasp Reflex?

What is the response to the stimulus?

What is the normal age of this response?


What are some ways this reflex can interfere with development if the reflex persists longer than normal?

Stimulus: pressure in palm on ulnar side of hand

Response: flexion of fingers causing strong grip

Normal Age: birth to 4 months

Interferes with: ability to grasp and release objects voluntarily and weight bearing on open hand for propping, crawling, protective responses

6

What is the stimulus which triggers the Plantar Grasp Reflex?

What is the response to the stimulus?

What is the normal age of this response?


What are some ways this reflex can interfere with development if the reflex persists longer than normal?

Stimulus: pressure on base of toes

Response: toe flexion

Normal Age: 28 weeks of gestation to 9 months

Interferes with: ability to stand with feet flat on surface and balance reactions and weight shifting in standing

7

What is the stimulus which triggers the Walking (Stepping) Reflex?

What is the response to the stimulus?

What is the normal age of this response?


What are some ways this reflex can interfere with development if the reflex persists longer than normal?

Stimulus: supported upright position with soles of feet on firm surface

Response: reciprocal flexion/extension of legs

Normal Age: 38 weeks of gestation to 2 months

Interferes with: standing and walking, balance reactions and weight shifting in standing, development of smooth, coordinated reciprocal movements of lower extremities

8

What is the stimulus which triggers the Rooting Reflex?

What is the response to the stimulus?

What is the normal age of this response?


What are some ways this reflex can interfere with development if the reflex persists longer than normal?

Stimulus: touch on cheek

Response: turning head to same side with mouth open

Normal Age: 28 weeks of gestation to 3 months

Interferes with: oral-motor development, development of midline control of head, optical righting, visual tracking, and social interaction

9

What is the stimulus which triggers the Moro Reflex?

What is the response to the stimulus?

What is the normal age of this response?


What are some ways this reflex can interfere with development if the reflex persists longer than normal?

Stimulus: head dropping into extension suddenly for a few inches

Response: arms abduct with fingers open, then cross trunk into adduction; cry

Normal Age: 28 weeks of gestation to 5 months

Interferes with: balance reactions in sitting, protective response in sitting, and eye-hand coordination/visual tracking

10

What is the stimulus which triggers the Startle Reflex?

What is the response to the stimulus?

What is the normal age of this response?


What are some ways this reflex can interfere with development if the reflex persists longer than normal?

Stimulus: loud sudden noise

Response: similar to moro response but elbows remain flexed and hands closed

Normal Age: 28 weeks of gestation to 5 months

Interferes with: sitting balance, protective response in sitting, hand-eye coordination, and social interaction/attention

11

What is the stimulus which triggers the Positive Support Reflex?

What is the response to the stimulus?

What is the normal age of this response?


What are some ways this reflex can interfere with development if the reflex persists longer than normal?

Stimulus: weight placed on balls of feet when upright

Response: stiffening of legs and trunk into extension

Normal Age: 35 weeks of gestation to 2 months

Interferes with: standing and walking, balance reactions and weight shift in standing, and can lead to contractures of ankle into plantar flexion

12

What reflexes should be present when a baby is 7 months old?

Symmetrical tonic neck reflex
plantar grasp reflex

13

Which reflexes should be present when a baby is 5 months old?

ATNR
Tonic Labyrinth Reflex
Moro

14

Which reflexes should be absent when a baby is 3 months old?

Galant Reflex
Rooting (should be fading)
Positive support reflex
walking reflex

15

At what age do typically developing children begin to crawl forwards?

8-9 months

16

At what age do typically developing children begin to creep (walk along furniture)?

8-9 months

17

At what age do typically developing children begin to Walk without support?

12-15 months

18

At what age do typically developing children begin to throw a ball?

16-24 months

19

At what age do typically developing children begin to support themselves on hands in prone?

4-5 months

20

At what age do typically developing children begin to roll from prone to supine?

Roll Supine to prone?

2-3 months

6-7 months (rolls from supine to sidelying at 4-5 months)

21

At what age do typically developing children begin to sit unassisted?

6-7 months