what type of cell wall has lipoteichoic acid?
what about LPS?
what are the porins in the second plasma membrane important for drug delivery?
Tell me the big bad bugs on CSF Gram stain
G neg cocci
G neg bacilli
This is important for treatment of meningitis
1. Gram pos cocci is steph pneumoniae
2. Gram pos bacilli is Listeria
Gram neg cocci is neisseria
Gram neg bacilli is H. influ
what is a problem with the legionella urinary antigen?
this is a problem because it only detects the L. pneumophilia 1,
the MO legionella longbeacheae is also common in QLD
what does galactomannan test for?
what about beta-D-glucan?
the first one is assoc with aspergillus
the second is other fungal, but not cryptococcus
which stages of syphilis are associated with positive serology, and which with negative?
primary syphilis (painless ulcer) is often sero neg
secondary and tertiary are usually sero pos
what is the most common pathogen with acute IE
what are some other causes of acute IE?
s. aureus is the main pathogen
s. pyogenes also important
what are the common pathogens associated with a subacute presentation of IE?
Strep viridans is a big deal
(Haemophilus, Aggregatibacter, Cardiobacterium, Eikenella, Kingella)
what are the risks of IE when the following come up as pos blood cultures?
1. s. mutans
2. s bovis
3. s gallolyticus
4. s. gallolyticus pasteurianus
5. e. faecalis
6. s pyogenes
1. s. mutans is extremely likely to be IE. 14:1 (14 IE cases for each non-IE)
2. s. bovis biotype 1 = 6:1
also very strongly associated with colon CA/adenoma
3. s. gallolyticus is the new name for s bovis (see above
4. s. gallolyticus pasteurianus is 1:1
- strongly assoc with CRC
5. e. faecalis = 1:1
6. s. pyogenes is 1:32! (much more likely to be from skin)
what is the most common pathogen in IE in IVDU
what is the most common in prosthetic valve IE?
in IVDU, number 1, 2 and 3 are s. aureus
in prosthetic valve:
1. coag- neg staph
2. s. aureus
what are the more common causes of culture negative endocarditis?