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Clin med II Patho > Infection > Flashcards

Flashcards in Infection Deck (30):
1

Bacteria

single cell, multi genus

different nuclei and protein synthesis than humans
cell walls

2

Antibacterial inhibition of cell membrane

cell membranes are made of peptidoglycans

drug creates holes into the walls of the cell membranes or prevents synthesis of cell membane

3

Antibacterial inhibition of protein synthesis

drug binds to ribosome

inhibition of protein synthesis

4

Anti bacterial inhibition of DNA/RNA synthesis and function

decrease the folic acid production to decrease DNA/RNA synthesis

directly inhibit production of DNA/RNA

5

Anti bacteria drugs are either ____ or ____?

bacteriocide or bacteriostatic

narrow or broad spectrum

6

What causes antibacterial resistance

enzyme that degrades drug agent
change or masking of the binding agent
change the target enzyme of the drug
decreased drug penetration
efflux pumping out of the drug

7

Prevention and treatment of resistance

Avoid prescribing broad spectrum
use narrow spectrum when possible

use of 2nd drug to overcome resistance beta lactamase inhibitor

8

Antibacterial rehab concerns

allergic reaction/hypersensitivity
UV sensitivity
prevents the spread of infection
tendon rupture (fluroquinolones)

9

Risks of tendon rupture

increased age, steroid use, renal failure, tendon issue

large WBing tendon at risk

10

Virus in general

DNA encapsulated by capsid (protein shell)

11

Viral replication in general

penetrates the host cell and releases genetic material
overtakes the host cell and produces more viral cells
symptoms experienced are the lost of host cell

12

Anti-viral meds

specific to virus
inhibits viral enzyme
virustatic not virucidal

13

Tendon damage cause

unclear (oxidatitve change)
rapid onset 2 hours
85% within the first month
discharge use of drug to protect tendone

14

Viral replication steps and their treatment

1. Absorption- can be prevented by enfuviritide

2. penetrating and uncoating- tx with amantadine

3. biosynthesis- RTI, protease inhibitors

4. maturation and release- rifampicin

15

Interferons

small protein produced endogenously that controls cell proliferation and immune response

interferon alfacon -1 for hep C
interferon alfa 2b condylomata for hep B

16

Antiviral vaccines

made from modified virus
administered prior to viral exposure
stims the immune system to produce specific antibodies

17

HIV/AIDS

attacks T4 lymphocytes and decreases immune system function = susceptible to opportunistic infections

aids is associated with HIV

18

Reverse transcriptase inhibitors (RTI)

inhibits the transcription of viral DNA to viral RNA

nucleocidal- drug acts as the false substrate to prevent

non- nucleocidal- drug blocks the binding site of the reverse transcriptase to inhibit.

19

Protease inhibitors

protease- key enzyme in HIV synthesis

protease inibitor mimics components of the enzyme to inhibit function of the protease

20

HIV entry inhibitor

decreases the ability of HIV to enter

21

Integrase inhibitor

integrase splices viral DNA into host cell genes,

inhibits the integrase

22

Drug combination of HIV

2 nucleocidal RTI + 1 non-nucleocidal

and potentially others to defend against resistance

23

other-aids meds

antibacterial and antiviral for opportunistic infections

interferons for cancer

24

Anti-HIV med summary

now new strategies to impair HIV replication cycle

strategies to inhibit specific HIV replication cyle

25

Anti-HIV adverse effects

RTI/Integrase inhibitors
neuropathy and myopathy

Protease/Integrase inhibitors
lipodystrophy

GI distress, immune response

26

Future of HIV treatment

HAART (highly active antiretroviral therapy)
vaccine?prevention
ongoing drug development

27

Fungal infection

myocosin (superficial to deep)

immuno-supressed patients will experience severe systemic reaction

28

Imidazoles

inhibits the enzyme that synthesizes the membrane

local vs sytemic depends on toxicity level

29

Other fungal infection

impair the integrity of the fungal membrane and biochem of fungus

30

Adverse effects of topical vs. systemic

topical: no real adverse effects, excess use=resistance?

systemic: Gi distress, HA, liver toxicity, blood dyscrasia