Infection Test Flashcards Preview

Health Science > Infection Test > Flashcards

Flashcards in Infection Test Deck (36):
1

Infection control

Microorganisms are everywhere
Some are pathogens-disease causing and some are nonpathogens

Cannot see without a microscope

2

Microorganism

Also called microbes
Small living organism not visible to naked eye
Some part of normal flora of body and are beneficial-may be beneficial in one part of body but harmful in another ie E. coli found in large intestine-causes UTI if in urinary system

3

Microbes

Pathogens-disease causing (germs)
Non pathogens-non disease causing

4

Pathogenic and non pathogenic organisms

Pathogenic-disease producing
Non pathogenic-aka "good" organisms
-used to make buttermilk
-ferment grain to produce alcohol
-to make bread rise
Also decompose organic materials in nature

5

Pathogenic organisms

E. Coli or escherichia coli-
Cause food poisoning and death
Occurs when meat being cut up-organisms from the colon can come in contact with other parts of the beef
This is why you need to cook your meat until it reaches temp of 160

6

Classes of microorganisms

Bacteria
-simple one celled organism
-multiply quickly
-classified by shape and arrangement

7

Bacteria

Cocci
-round or spherical
-if in pairs called diplococci
-cause gonorrhea, meningitis, pneumonia
-if occur in chains called streptococci
-strep throat, rheumatic fever

8

Bacteria

Occur in clusters or groups called staphylococci
Staph most common pyogenic or pus producing microorganisms
Cause boils, wound infections and toxic shock syndrome TSS

9

Bacilli

Rod shaped bacteria
Occur singly, in pairs or chains
Many have flagella or threadlike projections similar to tails for movement

Have ability to produce spores which are thick walled capsules when growth conditions are poor

10

Bacilli

In spore form extremely hard to kill

Causes TB, tetanus pertussis(whooping cough)botulism etc

11

Spirilla

Spiral or corkscrew shaped
Cause syphilis and cholera

12

Bacteria

ATBS work for most
Now have many drug resistant bacteria
MRSA/VRE

MRSA-methicillin resistant staphy coccus aurous
VRE-vancomycin resistant enterococci

13

Protozoa

One celled animal like organisms
Often found in decayed material and contaminated water
Many have flagella for movement
Some are pathogenic
Cause malaria, amebic dysentery, African sleeping sickness

14

Fungi

A low form of plant life
Simple plant like organisms
Live on dead organic matter
Include molds and yeast which can be pathogenic
Cause athletes foot, thrush,vaginitis, ringworm and serious lung diseases

15

Fungi

Treated with anti fungal agents
ATBS won't work
Meds expensive and if taken internally may damage liver

16

Rickettsiae

Are parasites that live in lice, fleas, ticks and mites
Cannot live outside cells of another living organism
Transferred when person bitten
Cause most of worlds worst epidemics such as typhys, spotted fever
Prevention: control rodents and insects
ATBS for treatment

17

Viruses

Smallest microorganism
Visible only with electron microscope
Cannot grow until takes over a living cell
Spread from person to person in blood and other body fids
Cause of common cold and many URIS

18

Viruses

Hard to kill as resistant to many disinfectants
ATBs won't work

Cause common cold, chicken pox, smallpox, measles, influenza, warts, polio, and fever blisters
AIDS ONE OF THE MOST SERIOUS

19

Three viruses of major concern

Hep b
Hep C
AIDS

20

Hepatitis B

Aka serum hepatitis
Caused by hep B virus or HBV
Spread by blood, serum and other body flds
Affects liver and can lead to destruction and scarring of liver cells

Vaccine-3 injections over 6 month period-must complete entire series to be protected
Nonresponder

21

Hepatitis B

Vaccine must be offered to new employee within 10 days of being hired AT NO COST
EMPLOYEE CAN DECLINE- sign waiver-can change mind at any time

22

Hepatitis C

Caused by hepatitis C virus or HCV
Transmitted by blood or blood containing body fluids
May be asymmetric or have mild sxs and be diagnosed as having flu
Causes serious liver damage
No vaccine at present-one being developed

23

Sovaldi

Tx for HCV
$1000.00/pill
Treatment normally 12 months and $84,000.000

Sovaldi must be given in combination with other antiviral medications and should not be used alone

24

Hep B and C

Can remain live in dried blood on inanimate objects for up to 2 weeks (not 2 days as bk says)

Very hard to kill

25

AIDS-acquired immune deficiency syndrome

Caused by HIV Virus suppresses immune system
Cannot fight off many cancers and infections that would not affect a healthy person
No cure and no vaccines
Must take MANY meds to tx, sxs and SLOW progress of disease

26

HBV, HCV, AND HIV SPREAD THROUGH

blood and body flds
Direct injection with contaminated needle that punctures the skin
Contact of infected body flds with mucous membranes such as eyes, mouth(inside)
Pregnancy-transferred to newborn
Some are aerobic
Some are anaerobic

27

Classifications of infections and diseases

1: endogenous- the infection or disease originates within the body- tumors, congenital abnormalities, infections w/in the body
2: exogenous-originates outside of body
3: nosocomial infections
4:opportunistic infections- occur when body's defenses are weak

28

The chain of infection
As healthcare professionals, it is important to understand two facts about infection

There are six links in the chain of infection

29

Links in chain of infection

1st pathogen
2nd reservoir host
(Some hosts)
-bed pans
-urinals
3rd the portal of exit
4th mode of transmission
5th portal of entry
6th the susceptible host
(Babies, elderly, burn pts)

30

Asepsis

Hlth care facilities ALWAYS contaminated with pathogenic microorganisms
Pathogens brought in by pts. Visitors and staff
Facility must fight this through medical asepsis to destroy the environment that allows pathogens to live, breed and spread

31

Aseptic technique

Methods facility uses to make pt, staff and environment as germ free as possible
Includes staff having good hygiene
-proper handling of equipment
-use sterile technique when needed
**** handwashing ****
Good personal hygiene
PPE
Proper cleaning equipment and instruments
Thorough cleaning of equipment

32

Antisepsis

Aseptic control that inhabits, retards growth of or kills pathogenic organisms
Is it effective with spores and viruses
Usually used on skin- alcohol/betadine

33

Disinfection

Process that kills or destroys pathogenic organisms
Not always effective with spores/viruses
Can irate/damage skin
Mainly used on objects- chemicals

34

Sterilization

Destroys ALL microorganisms-includes spores and viruses
Steam under pressure, gas, radiation, and chemicals can be used for sterilization

35

Bloodborne pathogen standard

One of main ways pathogens spread is by blood/body flds
Major concern
-hep B
-hep C
-HIV which causes AIDS

36

Anthrax

Infectious- caused by spores of bacteria called bacillus anthracis
Spores very resistant to destruction and can live for years in soil