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Flashcards in Infections and infection control Deck (23)
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1
Q

What are the major groups of microorganisms

A

Parasites, algae, fungi, protozoa, bacteria

2
Q

How can microorganisms gain entry to the body?

A

Occur in any body system, resident macro bacteria, transient or unknown organisms, community or hospital acquired organisms.

3
Q

What infection control strategies can decrease the risk or severity of infections and disease?

A

Sterilisation, disinfection, antisepsis, pasteurisation, sanitisation

4
Q

What are the major prokaryotic cell morphology (shape) types?

A

Coccus (Spherical)
Bacillus (Rod Shaped)
Spirillum (Spiral Forms)

5
Q

What is the importance of the key structures of the prokaryotic cell and their use as virulence factors including the role of the endospore as plasmid?

A

Endospores- Protect genetic information in adverse environmental conditions.
Prokaryotes- have thick strong reasonably rigid, support weak cytoplasm membrane adding, high internal osmotic pressure

6
Q

define capsules

A

A though sheath or membrane that encloses an organ or other structure in the body, such as a kidney or a synovial joint

7
Q

Define Endospores

A

A way of protecting genetic information in adverse environmental condition

8
Q

Define binary fission

A

Is asexual reproduction by a separation of the body into two new bodies

9
Q

Define Flagella

A

Cell can move to a better /less toxic environment

10
Q

How does the prokaryote reproduce?

A

Binary fission

11
Q

What are the key components of a virus?

A

Tow morphological groups, helical ?& isometric and icosahedral
Genome, Capsid (coat protein), lipid envelope, spikes (peplomers)

12
Q

What are some disease / infections that are caused by viruses?

A

Hepatitis, Epstein barr virus

13
Q

What are the different forms of fungi and what is their clinical importance?

A

Different forms of fungi: mushroom, yeasts, moulds (filamentous) fungi
benefits - penicillium

14
Q

What are they key differences between sexual and asexual reproduction in fungi?

A

Asexual - by budding or fission

Sexual- spore formation or conjugation of cells

15
Q

what are the different types of parasites and what is their clinical importance?

A

Two types of parasites: Ectoparasites (live on their hosts) and endoparasites (live within the bodies of their hosts)

16
Q

What are the different phases of an infection / disease profile?

A

Incubation period, Prodromal period, Acute or invasive period, decline phase, convalescence.

17
Q

What is the importance of antimicrobials in the control of micro-organisms?

A

Antimicrobials are substances that kill or slow the spread of microorganisms, These include antibiotics, antivirals, antifungals, anti parasitic.

18
Q

What are some strategies for decreasing transmission of microorganisms? (both intra and interpersonal transmission)

A

Infection control, follow standard precautions

19
Q

Why are some microorganisms sensitive or resistant to antimicrobials? why is this important?

A

high to low
Prions, coccidia, bacterial endospores, mycobacteria, mycobacteria, cysts, small non-enveloped viruses, trophozoites, gram-negative bacteria, fungi, gram-positive bacteria, are lipid developed viruses

20
Q

What are the major circulatory systems?

A

System circulation, pulmonary circulation, foetal circulation

21
Q

Discuss the transport of substances into throughout and out of the body?

A

Into- Oxygen , nutrients, water,
Throughout- Wastes, immune cells, hormones, and other proteins, stored nutrients
out - metabolic wastes, heat and carbon dioxide,

22
Q

What is the anatomical location of the heart?

A

located on the midline of the chest

23
Q

What is the structure of the heart

A

the heart is located into 4 parts, 2 ventricles and 2 atria