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Flashcards in Information Technology Deck (70):
1

Which IT personnel roles

should always be segregated?

  • Operators
  • Programmers
  • Librarians

2

What are the duties of a systems analyst?

  • Designs or purchases IT system
  • Responsible for flowcharts
  • Liaison between Users and Programmers
  • Note: Think IT Manager

3

What is the primary duty of

a Systems Administrator?

Controls database access.

4

What are the duties of a

Systems Programmer?

Writes, Updates, Maintains, & Tests

software systems and compilers

5

Which duties should a Systems Programmer NOT have?

To maximize internal control, a Systems Programmer

  • should NOT have application programming duties/abilities

  • or be an Operator on the system.

6

What are the duties of a Systems Operator?

  • Schedules and Monitors Jobs
  • Runs IT Help Desk

7

What duties should a System Operator NOT have?

For internal control purposes, they should not be a Programmer on the system.

8

If it is not possible to segregate duties in an IT System, what actions should be taken to compensate for internal control purposes?

  • Include Computer Logs
  • Control Group should review the logs

9

What is the purpose of a Management Information System (MIS)?

To assist with decision making.

10

What is an Accounting Information System (AIS)?

A type of Management Information System (MIS)

that processes accounting transactions.

11

What are the characteristics of an Executive Information System (EIS)?

  • Specialized for Company Executive needs
  • Assists with Strategy Only
  • No Decision-Making Capabilities

12

What are the characteristics of an Expert System (ES)?

Computer uses reasoning

Structured

No human interpretation needed

13

What are the characteristics of a Decision Support System (DSS)?

  • Computer provides data
  • Gives Interactive Support
  • Human interpretation needed

14

What are the characteristics of an Ad Hoc computer report?

  • User initiates the report.
  • The report is created upon demand.

15

When are Exception reports generated?

Exception reports are produced when

  • Edit Tests
  • Check Digits
  • or Self-Checking Digits

identify a problem

16

What is a query?

A type of Ad Hoc report, initiated by a user.

17

What is End-User Computing?

The User develops and executes their own application.

18

What is the primary benefit of E-commerce?

E-commerce makes business transactions easier.

19

What are the risks of E-commerce?

  • Compromised data or theft
  • Less paper trail for auditors.

20

What are the benefits of

Electronic Data Interchange?

  • Uses globally-accepted standards
  • Efficient

21

What is a File Server?

A file server stores shared programs and documents.

22

What is the purpose of a Database?

Located on a File Server

allows users to share documents.

23

What is the purpose of a LAN (Local Area Network)?

It connects computers in close proximity.

24

What is the purpose of a WAN (Wide Area Network)?

It connects computers that are far apart.

25

What are the characteristics of a VAN (Value-Added Network)?

  • Privately-owned Network
  • Serves as 3rd Party Between 2 Companies
  • Routes EDI Transactions
  • Accepts wide range of Protocols
  • Very Costly

26

What is the purpose of a Firewall?

Prevents unauthorized access to a network.

27

What are the characteristics of a virus?

  • Takes over a computer
  • Needs a host program to run

28

What are the characteristics of a computer worm?

  • Takes over multiple computers
  • Doesn't need a host program to run

29

What is the purpose of Automated Equipment Controls?

They prevent and detect hardware errors.

30

What is RAM?

  • Random Access Memory.
  • Internal memory in the computer used during immediate processing.

31

What is a CPU?

  • Computer Processing Unit
  • It processes commands within a computer.

32

What is Job Control Language?

It schedules and allocates system resources.

33

What are examples of input devices?

  • Keyboard
  • Mouse
  • Scanner
  • Magnetic Ink Reader
  • Magnetic Tape Reader
  • EDI
  • Point of Sale Scanner

34

What are examples of Output Devices?

  • Speakers
  • Monitors
  • Printers

35

What are the characteristics of Magnetic Tape storage?

  • Sequential Access - Sorts data in order
  • Slower data retrieval
  • Header Label prevents Operator error by loading wrong tape
  • External Labels prevent accidental destruction by operator

36

What are the characteristics of Magnetic Disks?

  • Random Access - Finds data in random spots
  • Faster data retrieval
  • Uses Boundary Protection for data

37

What is a Gateway?

Connects one network to another

Note: the Internet is connected by Gateways

38

What are Parity Checks?

A control that detects internal data errors.

A bit is added to each character- it checks to see if a bit was lost.

39

What is an Echo Check?

Transmitted data is returned to the sender for verification (it echoes back to the sender)

40

What is a Change Control?

It authorizes program changes

and approves program test results.

41

What is security software?

Software that controls access to IT systems.

Note: Don't confuse this with anti-virus software

42

What is the purpose of a Digital Signature?

It confirms a message has not been altered.

43

List the types of computers from smallest to largest

  • PDA/Smartphone/Tablet
  • Microcomputer - PC- Laptop (cost-effective)
  • Minicomputer - Like a Mainframe- but smaller
  • Mainframe - Large computer with terminals attached
  • Supercomputer - Very powerful and very big

44

What are the units of computer data

from smallest to largest?

  • Bit - 1 (on) and 0 (off)
  • Byte - 8 bits to a byte/character
  • Field - group of related bytes (Ex: Name, Zip Code, Serial #)
  • Record - Group of related fields (MemberName, address, #)
  • File - Group of related records (i.e. Membership directory)

45

What is the duty of a design engineer?

Determine language used for a specific computer

on a computer-to-computer basis

46

What are object programs?

Programs written in base computer language

not similar to English

47

How can source programs be recognized?

They are written in a language close to English.

48

What is the purpose of a Compiler?

Takes Source language (English)

and converts to Object (Computer) Language

49

How does Online Analytical Processing work?

It uses a Data Warehouse

to support management decision making.

50

What is Data Mining?

Using AI and pattern recognition

to analyze data stores within a Data Warehouse.

51

What is the purpose of online transaction processing?

To process a company's routine transactions.

52

What are the characteristics of batch processing?

  • Data held- updates multiple files all at once
  • Leaves a better audit trail
  • Uses Grandfather-Father-Son backup (3 levels of backup kept in 3 locations)

53

What does an output control check for?

Checks to see if output data is valid

distributed and used in an authorized manner.

54

What does a processing control check?

Checks if data processing produced proper output

55

What is a hash total?

An input control number, a meaningless sum of values included in the input.

Ex: summing a list of SSNs to make sure the data is the same once entered as it was prior to input into the system.

56

What is a validity check?

Checks to see if data in existing tables or files belongs in the set

Ex: Is there a # in an alpha-only field or a letter in a numeric-only field

57

What is a limit check?

Checks to see if numbers surpass a certain limit

i.e. Age field is the number greater than 110 yrs old

58

What is a check digit?

An input control that adds an ID number to a set of digits  usually at the end

59

What is a field check?

An input check that prevents invalid characters

i.e. checks for alphabetic letters in a SSN field

60

What is a Hot Site?

A disaster recovery system

If the main system goes down, a Hot Site is ready to take over immediately.

61

What is a Cold Site?

If a main system goes down, a Cold Site will take time to get set up and running.

62

What is the most common database language?

SQL - Structured Query Language

63

What is a Data Definition Language?

  • Defines SQL Database
  • Controls SQL Tables

64

What is a Data Manipulation Language?

Queries SQL Database tables

65

What is a Data Control Language?

Controls Access to SQL Database

66

What are the characteristics of a

Relational Database?

  • Logical structure
  • Uses rows and columns similar to spreadsheet

67

What are the characteristics of

a Hierarchical Database?

  • Has various levels
  • Uses trees to store data

68

What are the advantages of a database?

  • Data is more accessible
  • Reduced redundancy

69

What are the disadvantages of a database?

  • Cost of installation
  • Skilled personnel required to maintain

70

What are the components of a database?

  • Desktop client
  • Application Server
  • Database Server

Your desktop runs applications and saves to a database