Integumentary System 2 Flashcards Preview

Human Physiology 101 > Integumentary System 2 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Integumentary System 2 Deck (152):
1

Are accessory structures less important than the skin itself?

No

2

What are five examples of accessory structures of the integumentary system?

Hair
Hair follicles
Sebaceous glands
Sweat glands
Nails

3

Which glands are involved in immune response: sebaceous glands or sweat glands?

Both

4

What are accessory structures of the integumentary system derived from?

The embryonic epidermis - they begin to develop in utero

5

What layer of the skin are the accessory structures of the integumentary system located?

In the dermis.
They project through the skin's surface

6

What are there lots of in the dermis?

Sensory neurons

7

What will problems in the dermis lead to?

Problems with dermis will lead to problems in secondary structures

8

What are hairs also called?

Pili

9

What is hair composed of?

Columns of dead, keratinised cells held together by extracellular proteins

10

What are the two components of hair?

Shaft
Root

11

What is the superficial portion of hair called?

The shaft

12

What part of the hair penetrates the skin?

The root

13

What is the root of the hair the site of?

The root hair plexus

14

What is the root hair plexus composed of?

Lots of different neurons

15

What does the root of the hair help with?

It helps the hair to replicate and grow

16

What is hair surrounded by?

Follicle

17

How are columns of hair arranged?

In a parallel form, to form the hair shaft

18

What surrounds each hair follicle?

Dendrites of hair root plexuses

19

What is follicle?

The connective tissue around the shaft of hair

20

What is the role of the root hair plexus?

To generate nerve impulses is the shaft of hair is moved.

21

What sections of hair are located in the dermis?

All sections of hair.

22

What are the five roles of hair?

Provide protection
Thermoregulation
Insulation
Guard openings against particles and insects
Provide sensitivity to very light touch

23

Why does hair vary in colour?

As a result of the amount and type of melanin in keratonitised cells

24

What is the cause of grey hair?

A progressive decline in the synthesis of tyrosinase enzyme

25

What causes goosebumps?

The contraction of the arrector pilli muscle

26

What is the arrector pilli muscle under the control of?

The sympathetic nervous system

27

What are most sebaceous glands connected to?

Hair follicles

28

What is the secretory portion in the dermis?

Sebaceous glands

29

What are sebaceous glands also called?

Oil glands

30

Are sebaceous glands present in thin skin?

Yes

31

Are sebaceous glands present in thick skin?

No

32

What do sebaceous glands secrete?

Sebum

33

What are the four roles of sebum?

Moisten hairs
Waterproof skin (More like water resistance)
Soften skin
Inhibit bacterial growth

34

What effects how oily your hair gets?

The amount of sebum secreted

35

Other than the integumentary system, what system is sebum a part of?

The immune system

36

What would be a likely cause of oily hair or skin?

An overproduction of sebum

37

What is the cause of pimple?

Overactive or blocked sebaceous glands

38

What causes overactive sebaceous glands during puberty?

Hormonal changes

39

What is a whitehead pimple?

Where the skin hasn't been broken

40

What is a blackhead pimple?

Where the skin has been broken, oxidising sebum, turning it black

41

What is a pimple on the superficial layers of skin called?

Pustule

42

What is a pimple on the deeper layers of skin called?

Paptule

43

What is a pimple on the deepest layers of skin called?

Cyst

44

In what 4 places are apocrine sweat glands located?

Arm pit
Nipples
Groin
Beard area (males)

45

What is the arm pit also called?

Axilla

46

Where are areolae located?

Around nipples

47

What is the groin also called?

Pubis

48

How do secretions of apocrine sweat glands occur?

Via ducts into hair follicles

49

Describe the secretions of apocrine sweat glands

Sticky, cloudy secretions which sometimes produce an odor

50

What can the secretions of apocrine sweat glands be considered?

A halfway between sebum and sweat

51

When do apocrine sweat glands begin to function?

During puberty

52

Why do we begin to smell in puberty?

Due to the function of apocrine sweat glands.

53

What are sweat glands also called?

Sudoriferous glands

54

What are merocrine sweat glands also called?

Eccrine sweat glands

55

Where are merocrine sweat glands located?

They are widely distributed on the body's surface, but especially on the palms and soles

56

Where do merocrine sweat glands discharge to?

Directly onto the skin's surface

57

What two things do merocrine sweat glands secrete?

Water and electrolytes (salts)

58

What is the main function of merocrine sweat glands?

Heat loss

59

What occurs to skin blood vessels and core temperature increases?

Increased dilation

60

What occurs to skin blood vessels during exercise?

Constriction

61

What is the result of blood vessel constriction during intense exercise?

A rapid increase in core temperature

62

Is perspiration/sweating a parasympathetic or sympathetic response?

Sympathetic

63

What does blood flow from inside the body effect?

The skin's temperature

64

Through what three processes is skin temperature lost?

Radiation
Conduction
Convection

65

How do our blood vessels react when we're cold?

Blood flows into the internal regions of the body to warm us up.

66

How do our blood vessels react when we're hot?

Blood flows away from the internal regions of the body to cool us down.

67

What are the two types of perspiration?

Insensible perspiration
Sensible perspiration

68

What is insensible perspiration?

Interstitial fluid lost by evaporation through the stratum corneum

69

When does insensible perspiration occur?

It is always happening and we're not aware of it.

70

Why do we not notice insensible perspiration?

Because by the time it leaves the skin, it's all but evaporated

71

What is sensible perspiration?

Water excreted by sweat glands

72

How does sensible perspiration occur?

Sensible perspiration is always triggered by something

73

In what two ways may thermoregulation be disrupted?

Changes in skin temperature
Changes in core temperature

74

What type of thermoreceptors detect changes in the skin's temperature?

Peripheral thermoreceptors in the skin

75

What type of thermoreceptors detect changes in core temperature?

Central thermoreceptors in the hypothalamus and abdominal organs

76

Where does information from peripheral thermoreceptors in the skin travel to?

Hypothalamic centres

77

Where does information from central thermoreceptors in the hypothalamus in abdominal organs travel to?

Hypothalamic centres

78

What are the two structures that can be stimulated by hypothalamic centres?

Motor neurons
Sympathetic nerves

79

What will motor neurons stimulate in the process of thermoregulation?

Skeletal muscle

80

What two things will sympathetic nerves stimulate in the process of thermoregulation?

Smooth muscle in skin arterioles
Sweat glands

81

What process involving skeletal muscles aids in thermoregulation?

Shivering

82

What makes shivering an odd process?

It is somatic yet involuntary

83

What two processes in smooth muscle of skin arterioles aid in thermoregulation?

Vasoconstriction
Vasodilation

84

What are ceruminous glands?

Modified sudoriferous glands

85

Where are ceruminous glands located?

In the external auditory canal

86

What is the auditory canal also called?

The ear canal

87

What do ceruminous glands produce?

A waxy substance called cerumen.

88

What is cerumen more commonly known as?

Ear wax

89

What is the function of cerumen?

To stop things from getting into our ear.

90

What type of glands are mammary glands?

Specialised sweat glands

91

What are the 4 main components of nails?

Nail root
Lunula
Hyponychium
Nail matrix

92

What is the hyponychium more commonly known as?

The nail bed

93

What does the nail root contain?

Cells that divide by mitosis and allow the nail to grow

94

What are nails?

Plates of tightly packed, hard, keratinised epidermal cells

95

What are nails very similar to?

Hair (but more tightly packed)

96

What 3 components do nails consist of?

Nail body
Free edge
Nail root

97

What is the role of nails?

To protect areas with densely-packed sensory neurons

98

What is the lunula?

An area of thickened stratum basale in the nail

99

What is the hyponychium?

An area of thickened stratum corneum in the nail

100

What is the role of the hyponychium?

To secure the nail to the top of the digit (finger/toe)

101

What is the eponychium also called?

Cuticle

102

What is the eponychium?

A narrow band of epithelium occupying the proximal border of the nail.

103

What is the nail matrix?

Epithelium that runs deep into the nail root

104

How do cells divide in the nail matrix?

Via mitosis

105

Via what process do cells divide in the nail matrix?

Mitosis

106

What is the average growth rate of the nail matrix?

An average growth rate of 1 mm per week

107

What is the average growth rate of the nail matrix?

1 mm per week

108

What three diseases can the clubbing of nails indicate?

Lung disease
Cardiovascular disease
Inflammatory bowel disease

109

What can dark lines in nails indicate?

Melanoma

110

What can blue nails indicate?

Cyanosis

111

When does epidermal wound healing occur?

It only really occurs when the integumentary system has been compromised

112

What is the process of epidermal wound healing?

Basal cells of the epidermis break contact with the basement membrane
Basal cells enlarge and migrate across the wound.
Migration is stopped due to contact inhibition
Relocated cells divide to build new epidermal layers and thicken the epidermis

113

When is deep wound healing necessary?

When the injury extends into the dermis and/or the subcutaneous layer

114

How many steps does deep wound healing have?

4

115

What are the 4 phases of deep wound healing?

Inflammatory phase
Migratory phase
Proliferative phase
Maturation phase

116

Describe the inflammatory phase of deep wound healing

A blood clot forms, loosely binding the wound edges to prevent fluid loss
Inflammation occurs

117

Describe the two steps of the inflammatory phase of deep wound healing

A blood clot forms, loosely binding the wound edges to prevent fluid loss
Inflammation occurs

118

Describe the three steps of the migratory phase of deep wound healing

The clot becomes a scab
Epithelial cells migrate beneath the scab to bridge the wound
Fibroblasts migrate and form collagen

119

Describe the three steps of the proliferative phase of deep wound healing

Once cells have migrated to the right areas, extensive growth of epithelial cells beneath the scab occurs
Random deposition of collagen fibres
Blood vessel growth

120

Describe the four steps of the maturation phase of deep wound healing

Collagen fibres become organised
Epithelium is restored back to normal thickness
Blood vessels are restored
Scab falls off

121

How will a cut across lines of cleavage heal?

It will pull open and scar

122

What are the three types of UV radiation?

UVA
UVB
UVC

123

Which form of UV radiation is usually stopped by the ozone layer?

UVC

124

What is UVA radiation responsible for?

Responsible for skin tanning (triggers melanin production)

125

Does UVA radiation cause damage to skin?

Yes. Long-term damage

126

Does UVA radiation cause damage to skin?

Yes.

127

What damage can UVB light cause?

DNA damage in epidermal cells

128

What percentage of all cancer diagnosed in Australia is skin cancer?

Over 80%

129

What does DNA damage in epidermal cells from UVB radiation cause?

This causes the tumour suppressor gene to be disabled, causing cells to multiply uncontrollably, causing tumours.

130

What type of pain do first-degree burns cause?

Superficial discomfort

131

How long do first-degree burns take to heal?

Days

132

How long do second-degree burns take to heal?

Weeks

133

How long do third-degree burns take to heal?

Months or Years

134

What may be needed to treat third-degree burns?

Skin grafts

135

What is a complication associated with third-degree burns?

There may be an infection that can kill you even if the burn doesn't

136

What percentage of the body needs to be burnt to be considered life-threatening?

20% or over

137

What types of burns need medical care regardless of what degree of burn?

Any burn involving:
Genitals
Eyes
Ears
Hands
Feet
Major joints

138

What 6 regions of the body need medical care if burnt regardless of the type of burn?

Genitals
Eyes
Ears
Hands
Feet
Major joints

139

When burns occur to the head of an adult, what percentage of the body is this considered to be?

9%

140

When burns occur to the an arm of an adult, what percentage of the body is this considered to be?

9% each

141

When burns occur to the trunk of an adult, what percentage of the body is this considered to be?

36% (front and back)

142

When burns occur to the genitals of an adult, what percentage of the body is this considered to be?

1%

143

When burns occur to the leg of an adult, what percentage of the body is this considered to be?

18% each

144

When burns occur to the head of a child, what percentage of the body is this considered to be?

15%

145

When burns occur to the trunk of a child, what percentage of the body is this considered to be?

32% (front and back)

146

When burns occur to the arm of a child, what percentage of the body is this considered to be?

9% each

147

When burns occur to the genitals of a child, what percentage of the body is this considered to be?

1%

148

When burns occur to the leg of a child, what percentage of the body is this considered to be?

17% each

149

What is contact inhibition?

When cells detect other cells around them, they stop migrating

150

What hormone stimulates basal cells to enlarge and migrate across the wound?

Epidermal growth factor (EGF)

152

Why does migration terminate in wound healing?

To prevent additional energy loss.

153

What type of damage to skin is caused by UVA radiation?

Long-term damage

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