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Flashcards in Intelligence: Basics Deck (38):
1

What is the concept referred to by: The presence of systematic error in the measurement of certain factors among certain individuals or groups.

Bias

2

What are some pros of IQ testing? (There are 5 listed.)

1) Good predictor of short term scholastic performance
2) Good way to assess individuals relative strengths and weaknesses
3) Good predictor of occupational achievement
4) Can reveal personality variables
5) Can permit the researcher to track changes in the individual

3

What are some cons of IQ testing? (There are 3 listed.)

1) Limited in predicting success
2) Not a measure of innate ability
3) Overemphasizes end product of cognitive functioning and neglects underlying cognitive processes.

4

What are the 4 phases of clinical assessment?

1) Evaluate the referral question
2) Consider appropriate instruments
3) Collect data from as broad a range as possible
4) Interpret and make recommendations and predictions

5

When assessing, what information is important to consider in order to get the most broad a range as possible of information?

History of the presenting concern
Social history
Personal issues
Current family
Physical and mental health history

6

What is a "metric equivalence?"

a psychometric property consistent across all cultures.

7

What does the APA code of ethics (2002) state regarding assessment practices?

Psychologists base assessments on techniques sufficient to substantiate findings (9.01a), and conduct examinations that are adequate to support their findings (9.01b)
base assessment on techniques that make sense for what they're measuring
conduct exams that are good enough to support findings.

8

Define "reliability"

Consistency - It provides an estimate of the amount of true variance to observed variance.

9

What are 2 limits of group IQ testing?

You can't observe behavior or motivation.
It requires reading
It is not sensitive to culture

10

Are percentile ranks nominal, ordinal, interval, or ratio?

Ordinal

11

What is the first responsibility of the examiner?

To define the purpose of testing

12

What does Standard Deviation reflect?

The variability, it tells you where a score falls relative to a mean.

13

What are 3 standard scores?

T-scores, Z-scores, and Stanines

14

What is ecological validity?

"Real-world validity." How much a test reflects what someone will do in the real world.

15

What is a psychological test?

A measure of a SAMPLE of behavior. There is a lot of information that you are not able to see within the window of testing, it is just a sample of the participant's behavior.

16

Define "unsystematic error"

Things that impact scores that can not be accounted for in testing (e.g. lack of sleep, lucky guess, test anxiety, etc.)

17

Define "content validity"

Do the items measure the intended behavioral domain?

18

Define "construct validity"

does the test measure the construct or trait?

19

There are 2 types of construct validity, what are they?

Convergent validity and discriminant validity

20

What is the multitrait-multimethod matrix?

An approach that stresses the importance of using both discriminant and convergent validation techniques when assessing new tests.

21

Define convergent validity

Can be established if two similar constructs correspond with one another

22

Define discriminant validity

applies to two dissimilar constructs that are easily differentiated

23

Define criterion related validity

how well the test predicts certain criteria

24

Define concurrent validity

how well the test makes immediate predictions

25

Define predictive validity

how well the test makes predictions in the future

26

Name four factors that influence intelligence

SES, schools, parent involvement, exposure to toxins

27

Describe crystallized intelligence

facts, trivia, information learned in school, education

28

Describe fluid intelligence

how you manipulate information, problem solving abilities, nonverbal reasoning.

29

Why does IQ tend to decline after 65?

Deterioration of the myelin sheaths in the brain.

30

Define the Flynn effect

The phenomenon whereby IQ tends to increase by approximately 3 points per decade in the population. This is not true for achievement scores.

31

Name 3 "culture free" tests

Peabody picture vocabulary test, test of non-verbal intelligence (TONI-4), and the raven's progressive matrices.

32

What are the four subtests of the WRAT

Word reading
Spelling
Sentence comprehension
Math computation

33

What are 3 pros and 1 con of the WRAT?

Can be used as an outcome measure as there are two forms.
Highly correlated with other measures of achievement.
Easy to administer, quick to score.
CON: Doesn't discriminate very well between adults with high education.

34

What does the mini mental status exam measure?

orientation, attention, verbal memory, praxis (thought process), and language function

35

What does part A of the trails test measure?

attention

36

What does part B of the trails test measure?

attention and cognitive flexibility

37

What are 5 areas that the RBANS measures?

Immediate memory
Visuospatial constructional
Language
Attention
Delayed memory

38

Why are outcome measures important? (10 examples listed)

Measurement of progress
Tracks whether interventions are effective
Cue you to need to make changes in intervention
Identify new issues
Identify symptoms of clients
Insurance billing
Standard of care
Evidence based treatment
Treatment goals
Client satisfaction – correlates well with sustaining the change