Flashcards in Intelligence: Basics Deck (38):
What is the concept referred to by: The presence of systematic error in the measurement of certain factors among certain individuals or groups.
What are some pros of IQ testing? (There are 5 listed.)
1) Good predictor of short term scholastic performance
2) Good way to assess individuals relative strengths and weaknesses
3) Good predictor of occupational achievement
4) Can reveal personality variables
5) Can permit the researcher to track changes in the individual
What are some cons of IQ testing? (There are 3 listed.)
1) Limited in predicting success
2) Not a measure of innate ability
3) Overemphasizes end product of cognitive functioning and neglects underlying cognitive processes.
What are the 4 phases of clinical assessment?
1) Evaluate the referral question
2) Consider appropriate instruments
3) Collect data from as broad a range as possible
4) Interpret and make recommendations and predictions
When assessing, what information is important to consider in order to get the most broad a range as possible of information?
History of the presenting concern
Physical and mental health history
What is a "metric equivalence?"
a psychometric property consistent across all cultures.
What does the APA code of ethics (2002) state regarding assessment practices?
Psychologists base assessments on techniques sufficient to substantiate findings (9.01a), and conduct examinations that are adequate to support their findings (9.01b)
base assessment on techniques that make sense for what they're measuring
conduct exams that are good enough to support findings.
Consistency - It provides an estimate of the amount of true variance to observed variance.
What are 2 limits of group IQ testing?
You can't observe behavior or motivation.
It requires reading
It is not sensitive to culture
Are percentile ranks nominal, ordinal, interval, or ratio?
What is the first responsibility of the examiner?
To define the purpose of testing
What does Standard Deviation reflect?
The variability, it tells you where a score falls relative to a mean.
What are 3 standard scores?
T-scores, Z-scores, and Stanines
What is ecological validity?
"Real-world validity." How much a test reflects what someone will do in the real world.
What is a psychological test?
A measure of a SAMPLE of behavior. There is a lot of information that you are not able to see within the window of testing, it is just a sample of the participant's behavior.
Define "unsystematic error"
Things that impact scores that can not be accounted for in testing (e.g. lack of sleep, lucky guess, test anxiety, etc.)
Define "content validity"
Do the items measure the intended behavioral domain?
Define "construct validity"
does the test measure the construct or trait?
There are 2 types of construct validity, what are they?
Convergent validity and discriminant validity
What is the multitrait-multimethod matrix?
An approach that stresses the importance of using both discriminant and convergent validation techniques when assessing new tests.
Define convergent validity
Can be established if two similar constructs correspond with one another
Define discriminant validity
applies to two dissimilar constructs that are easily differentiated
Define criterion related validity
how well the test predicts certain criteria
Define concurrent validity
how well the test makes immediate predictions
Define predictive validity
how well the test makes predictions in the future
Name four factors that influence intelligence
SES, schools, parent involvement, exposure to toxins
Describe crystallized intelligence
facts, trivia, information learned in school, education
Describe fluid intelligence
how you manipulate information, problem solving abilities, nonverbal reasoning.
Why does IQ tend to decline after 65?
Deterioration of the myelin sheaths in the brain.
Define the Flynn effect
The phenomenon whereby IQ tends to increase by approximately 3 points per decade in the population. This is not true for achievement scores.
Name 3 "culture free" tests
Peabody picture vocabulary test, test of non-verbal intelligence (TONI-4), and the raven's progressive matrices.
What are the four subtests of the WRAT
What are 3 pros and 1 con of the WRAT?
Can be used as an outcome measure as there are two forms.
Highly correlated with other measures of achievement.
Easy to administer, quick to score.
CON: Doesn't discriminate very well between adults with high education.
What does the mini mental status exam measure?
orientation, attention, verbal memory, praxis (thought process), and language function
What does part A of the trails test measure?
What does part B of the trails test measure?
attention and cognitive flexibility
What are 5 areas that the RBANS measures?