Intro lecture Flashcards Preview

HD exam one > Intro lecture > Flashcards

Flashcards in Intro lecture Deck (51):
1

Organs of the immune system

Bone marrow, thymus, spleen, lymph nodes, adenoids, tonsils, and appendix

2

Method of transfer for immune system cells

Through lymph or through blood

3

Location of lymph node clusters

Axilla, neck, abdomen, and groin

4

Germinal center

Where antibody is produced by B cells after antigen stimulation

5

Paracortex

Mostly T lymphocytes

6

Medulla

Mostly macrophages

7

Main cells involved in the first line of defense

Macrophages and neutrophils

8

Monocytes

Mature into specialized macrophages that migrate to the peripheral tissues of the body and prepare for microbial invasion

9

Where do large numbers of mature macrophages reside?

In connective tissue, the digestive tract, the respiratory tract, spleen, and in the liver (Kupffer cells)

10

Neutrophils

Short-lived cells that circulate in the blood. Migrate to place of infection when they occur to assist macrophages

11

Dendritic cells

Macrophage-like and are highly specialized for phagocytosis and presentation of antigens

12

Eosinophils are the principal defender against what kind of pathogen?

Parasites

13

Cluster of differentiation antigens

(CD's). Different ones are expressed on the cell surface of different types of cells to differentiate them from each other

14

CD marker on granulocytes

CD15

15

CD marker on monocytes

CD14

16

CD marker on dendritic cells

CD11c

17

CD marker on T cells

CD3

18

CD marker on cytotoxic T cells

CD8

19

CD marker on helper T cells

CD4

20

CD marker on B cells

CD19

21

CD marker on natural killer cells

CD56

22

What happens when a foreign microbe enters the human body?

Phagocytosed by dendritic cells, which then make antigens and present them to T cells after traveling to peripheral lymph organs

23

What happens if the foreign antigen is in the blood stream?

It is captured by the spleen and dealt with there

24

Where are class I MHC molecules expressed?

In virtually all nucleated cells

25

Where are class II MHC molecues expressed?

In B cells, macrophages, monocytes, and dendritic cells

26

What do MHC molecules do?

Present foreign antigens as antigenic peptides

27

Antigen

Molecules that stimulate the production of/ bind to antibodies

28

Epitopes

Multiple antigenic components on a pathogen

29

Definition of antigen

Any non-self molecule that is capable of eliciting the production of antibodies

30

Innate immunity

Provides initial defense against microbes and is not antigen specific

31

What happens if innate immunity fails to eliminate the pathogen?

The adaptive immune system responds in a specific manner to eliminate the invading microorganism

32

Adaptive immunity

Mediated by B cells and T cells; antigen-specific. Takes time to elicit effects.

33

What portion of adaptive immunity do B cells control?

Humoral response

34

What portion of adaptive immunity do T cells control?

Cell-mediated response

35

Compare humoral immunity to cell-mediated immunity.

Humoral immunity is the release of antibodies to impair the pathogen. Cell-mediated either phagocytoses the pathogen directly or releases cytokines that kill the foreign antigen

36

Stages of the adaptive response

1. Recognition of the antigen
2. Phagocytosis of the antigen by an APC
3. Presentation of the antigen
4. Activation of T/B lymphocytes
5. Clonal expansion and differentiation

37

What happens as antigen is eliminated?

The immune response slows, and effector lymphocytes undergo apoptosis except for ones that are kept as memory cells

38

What happens to the B cell when it encounters its match?

Antigen attaches to the receptor, the B cell clonally expands, differentiates, and some become plasma cells that produce the antibodies at rates up to 10,000,000/hour

39

Two major ways T cells are immunogenic

Kill things directly or release cytokines that help other cells

40

Which cells make cytokines?

T helper cells

41

What do cytokines do?

They are factors for growth, differentiation, and activation of B and T cells

42

What chemicals do cytotoxic T cells and natural killer cells release?

Perforin and granzymes

43

Cytotoxic T cells react to what kind of MHC?

Class one

44

Against what does cell-mediated immunity protect?

Bacteria, fungus, and viruses that are inside a host cell and therefore inaccessible to antibodies, as well as cancer cells.

45

B cell clonal expansion requires what?

Cytokines produced by T helper cells

46

Helper T cells respond to MHC class __ molecules.

II

47

What do antibodies do?

They can activate them; they also mark them for destruction by other cells and the complement system

48

What is the complement system?

A series of 30 proteins found in plasma that will kill an invader

49

Secondary response

When the same antigen is encountered twice, the response the second time will be much greater and faster; serves as a protective response.

50

Active immunity

The body builds up its own stores of immune cells and mounts and immune response on its own (can be from general infection or artificially by vaccination)

51

Passive immunity

Passed from one person to the other; e.g., breastfeeding or antibody transfusion