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Flashcards in Intro to CVP Deck (29):
1

Oxygen Delivery equation

arterial O2 x cardiac output

2

oxygen consumption equation

(arterial O2 - venous O2) x cardiac output

3

oxygen extraction ratio

consumption/delivery
VO2/DO2

4

DO2 vs. actual demand at rest

DO2 3-4x greater than actual demand

5

step 1 of oxygen transport

inspired oxygen and quality of air

6

step 2 of oxygen transport

airways

7

step 3 of oxygen transport

lungs and chest wall

8

which muscles allow for expansion of lungs

diaphragm and external intercostals

9

where is capillary pressure lowest in the lung?
-why?

in the top of the lung
-due to gravity drawing blood to the bottom of the lung

10

what muscles assist in forced expiration

interal intercostals
abdominals

11

step 4 of oxygen transport

diffusion

12

what is diffusion?
-based on what factors?

transfer of oxygen from alveolar sacs to pulmonary circulation
based on
-surface area of alveolar capillary membrane
-diffusing capacity of alveolar capillary membrane
-pulmonary capillary blood volume
-ventilation/perfusion ratio
-transit time of blood in alveolar capillary membrane

13

amount of oxygen that diffuses across alveolar-capillary membrane varies
-directly with...
-inversely with...

directly with size (surface area)
inversely with thickness

14

what change in the alveoli occurs in individuals with emphysema?

decreased surface area

15

step 5 of oxygen transport

perfusion

16

what is the V/Q ratio?
-typical value

amount of air getting to the alveoli/amount of blood going to the lungs
V/Q = 0.8

17

is perfusion high or low in the apical part of the lung?

low (due to gravity)

18

how is ventilation to the apical part of the lung?

good (alveoli expand fully)

19

step 6 of oxygen transport

myocardial function

20

myocardial function is dependent on...

electrical excitation
cardiac output
-preload
-force (inotropic effect) an drate of contraction (chronotropic effect)
-afterload
--resistance to blood ejecting from the heart
measures of impairment
-heart rate
-ejection fraction

21

step 7 of oxygen transport

peripheral circulation

22

step 8 of oxygen transport

tissue extraction and utilization of oxygen

23

OER
-stands for
-what is it
-value at rest

oxygen extraction ratio
amount of O2 extracted at rest
23%

24

rate of O2 extraction regulated by...

oxygen demand (not availability)

25

step 9 of oxygen transport

return of partially saturated blood and CO2 to lungs

26

which step of oxygen transport would be affected in
-myocardial infarction
-pneumothorax
-asthma
-pulmonary embolus
-hypertension
-anemia

MCI
-6 MC function
pneumothorax
-3 lung and chest wall
asthma
-2 airways, 4 diffusion
pulmonary embolus
-5 perfusion
hypertension
-7 peripheral circulation
anemia
-8 tissue extraction and utilization of O2

27

factors that change O2 transport

normal
-activity, position, emotional stress
disease

28

greatest influence on O2 transport

gravity
-small shifts in gravity --> big fluid shifts

29

effects of restricted activity

decreases VO2 and CO with exercise
decreases OER