Intro to Immune System-Hunter Flashcards Preview

Block 6 Week 1 > Intro to Immune System-Hunter > Flashcards

Flashcards in Intro to Immune System-Hunter Deck (88):
1

What causes malaria?

plasmodium

2

What is ancylostoma?

hook worms (blood worms)

3

What is the single most important thing that happened to medicine?

vaccinations

4

Is innate immunity rapid or slow?

rapid

5

What is innate immunity?

it is preexisitng and does not need to be turned on, following an infection, this branch of the immune system will rapidly and immediately remove the infectious agent.

6

In innate immunity, recognition is performed (specifically/ nonspecifically/ broadly specifically)

nonspecifically and broadly specifically

7

If you have a highly virulent pathogen, what kind of immune response do you use?

early induced innate reponse

8

How does the early induced innate response recognize a pathogen?

with recognition of a microbial-associated molecular pattern/

9

How long does it take for the early induced innate response to work?

4-96 hours

10

How does the early induced innate response work?

it recognizes a microbrial associated molecular pattern that will result in increased inflammation recruitmen and activation of effector cells which will remove the infectious agent

11

What happens if the pathogenic agent is too much for the early induced innate response to handle?

it is handed off to he adaptive immune response

12

What kind of cells does the adaptive immune system have?

lymphoid cells

13

How long does it take for the adaptive immune response to start?

96 hours

14

When you have never seen a specific infection before, what immune system kicks in?

the adaptive immune response

15

How does the adaptive immune system work?

transports antigen to lymphoid organ where it is recognized by B and T cells and then clonal expansion and differentiation to effector cells will remove agent.

16

All cells of the immune system arise from where?

the bone marrow

17

What happens if you wipe out the bone marrow in person?

that person no longer has an immune system

18

What kind of stem cells are hematopoietic stem cells?

pluripotential

19

What does it mean to be pluripotential?

ability to give rise to a large number of lineages of cells

20

What 2 cell lineages of the immune system do hematopoetic cells give rise to?

common lymphoid progenitor and common myelooid progenitor

21

Most of the myeloid cells active in (blank) immunity

innate

22

Most of the lymphoid cells are active in (blank) immunity

adaptive

23

(common myeloid/ common lymphoid) begin in the bone morrow and will travel into the blood and then into the tissues where they are long living and act as a surveillance for microbial insults.

Common myeloid

24

What are the two most important types of common lymphoid cells?

B cells (one kind) and T cells (many flavors)

25

When stimulated to do so, what will B cells make? How will the do this?

antibodies
by turning into plasma cells

26

What can NK cells do? Are they part of the adaptive or innate immunity?

kill viruses
innate immunity

27

What kind of cell is polymorphonuclear leukocyte (PMN)?

neutrophil

28

What are granulocytic myeloid lineage cells?

neutrophils
eosinophils
basophils

29

What will monocytes turn into?

macrophages

30

What cells are important for orchestrating the adaptive immune response?

dendritic cells

31

What cell kills antibody coated parasites through released of granule contents/

eosinophils

32

What cell controls the immune response to parasites?

basophils

33

What cell phagocytizes and kills microoganisms?

neutrophils and macrophages

34

What cell helps with platelet formation and wound repair?

megakaryocytes

35

What cell phagocytosizes and kills microorganisms and activates T cells and initiates the immune response?

macrophages

36

What cell activates T cells and initiates adaptive immune response?

dendritic cell

37

What cell allows for the expulsion of parasites from the body through the release of granules containing histamine and other active agents?

mast cells

38

Which or more crucial T cells or B cells?

T cells beacuse you cant make B cells work without them

39

Where do T cells originate? where do they mature?

bone marrow
thymus

40

T or F, the immune system has a vascular system?

T, the lymphatic system

41

How do we get microorganims out of the tissue and into the blood to get rid of the microorganisms?

via the lymphatic system and lymph nodes

42

Is the spleen calm or reactive?

reactive, it is made predominantly of immune cells

43

What organ is the greatest blood flow of any organ in the body and deals with blood infection?

spleen

44

Is the spleen a central or peripheral lymphatic organ

peripheral

45

What are the 2 central lymphatic organs?

bone marrow and thymus

46

what are the peripheral lymphoid tissues?

lymphatic system
lymph nodes
spleen
mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT)
adenoids and tonsils

47

What is the largest component of the immune system?

MALT

48

What does MALT do?

separates the microbial world form the internal body (represents 75% of the immune system)

49

What kind of immune response do T cells give?

cell-mediated immune response

50

What kind of immune response do B cells give?

antibody response

51

What happens to your thymus after puberty?

it begins to atrophy

52

The architecture of the thymus helps to eliminate T cells that are unable to do what?

self-discriminate

53

What is the function of the thymus?

Bring nascent T cells and allows them to mature and be sent out to the body

54

How does the architecture of the lymph node kill microorganisms?

lymph flow in, signals to dendritic cells which activate T cells which activate b cells and make some antibodies

55

Where will the adaptive immune response ensue?

in the spleen

56

What happens if you dont have a spleen?

you can live but your are highly susceptible to infection
(i.e immunodeficient)

57

How are most cases of congenital asplenia inherited?

autosomal dominant pattern

58

How can you find if someone doesnt have a spleen?

injection of radioactive colloidal gold

59

Whta defends the mucosal surfaces where the vast majority of pathogens gain acess to the body?

MALT

60

What two components are a part of MALT?

GALT and BALT

61

T or F
Your adaptive immune system does not mke T cells or B cells specific for microorganisms

T, it just makes an unlimited repetoire, some of which will recognize microorganisms

62

T or F, in adaptive immunity, the immune response gets better with time

True!!

63

Describe the recogntition mechanism of innate immunity

rapid response, fixed genome, limited specificity, constant reponse (no change)

64

Describe the recognition mechanism of adaptive immunity

slow response (days to weeks), variable (not genome encoded), a lot of highly selective specificites, and improvement during the response

65

Do they innate and adaptive immune systems work together?

yes

66

Can you turn on an adaptive immune response without an innate response?

NO!

67

What kind of communication is ths:
a release of a mediator that travels a great distance to affect another cell

endocrine

68

What kind of communication is this:
a release of a mediator to surrounding cells to create an affect

paracrine

69

What kind of communication is this:
cells must be in the same location at the same time and must interact to create an affect (receptor-ligand interactions)

cell-cell contact

70

(blank) recognizes antigens presented by professional antigen presenting cells.

Adaptive immunity

71

What is this prinicple:
huge repertoire of B cells and T cells (adaptive immune system) and the receptors are generated randomly in huge numbers that allows the body to identify microbial pathogens. There are cells that are also generated to recognize self. There is a process where self recognizing cells are eliminated so they wll not react to self and thus not damage your own body. The cell that recognizes a microbe will turn on and proliferate to be able to destroy microbe.

Clonal selection

72

Where are self reactive cells eliminated?

thymus

73

how come, when you are infected by a microbe you were already infected by previously, you will not get as sick?

immunological memory

74

If you are exposed by an infectious agent, what would a normal response be? What about a deficient response?

protective immunity
recurrent infection

75

If you are exposed to an innocuous substance, what would a normal response be? What about a deficient response?

allergy
no response

76

If you are given a grafted organ, what is a normal response? What about a deficient response?

Rejection
acceptance

77

If you are given a self organ, what is a normal response? What about a deficient response?

Autoimmunity
self-tolerance

78

If you have a tumor, what is a normal response? what about a deficient response?

tumor immunity
cancer

79

The (blank) evolved to recognize and protect against infectious agents that enter our bodies through various portals and live extracellularly or intracellularly

immune system

80

Cells of the innate and adaptive immune system derive from hematopoietic precursors in the

bone marrow

81

Most of the cells involved in innate immunity, including the critically important phagocytic cells, derive from the (blank) cell lineage

myeloid

82

(blank) on innate cells distinguish harmless self from from harmful non-self and induce inflammation

Genomically encoded pattern recognition receptors

83

Antigen-presenting cells, especially (blank) cells, initiate adaptive immune responses

dendritic

84

(blank), which mature in the bone marrow or thymus, are the principal cells of adaptive immunity and generate non-genomically encoded pathogen recognition receptors of remarkable diversity

Lymphocytes

85

What are the central lymphoid tissues?
What are the peripheral lymphoid tissues?

The central lymphoid tissues include the bone marrow and thymus, and the peripheral lymphoid tissues include lymph nodes, spleen, and the mucosal-associated lymphoid tissue

86

What are the central priniciples of adaptive immunity

Self tolerance, clonal selection, and memory are the central principles of adaptive immunity

87

Lymphocytes activated by pathogens differentiate into (blank) or (blank) cells

effector or memory cells

88

(blank) immunity is comprised of B lymphocyte-mediated humoral responses (antibodies) and T lymphocyte-mediated cellular responses

Adaptive