Flashcards in Intro to Immune System-Hunter Deck (88):
What causes malaria?
What is ancylostoma?
hook worms (blood worms)
What is the single most important thing that happened to medicine?
Is innate immunity rapid or slow?
What is innate immunity?
it is preexisitng and does not need to be turned on, following an infection, this branch of the immune system will rapidly and immediately remove the infectious agent.
In innate immunity, recognition is performed (specifically/ nonspecifically/ broadly specifically)
nonspecifically and broadly specifically
If you have a highly virulent pathogen, what kind of immune response do you use?
early induced innate reponse
How does the early induced innate response recognize a pathogen?
with recognition of a microbial-associated molecular pattern/
How long does it take for the early induced innate response to work?
How does the early induced innate response work?
it recognizes a microbrial associated molecular pattern that will result in increased inflammation recruitmen and activation of effector cells which will remove the infectious agent
What happens if the pathogenic agent is too much for the early induced innate response to handle?
it is handed off to he adaptive immune response
What kind of cells does the adaptive immune system have?
How long does it take for the adaptive immune response to start?
When you have never seen a specific infection before, what immune system kicks in?
the adaptive immune response
How does the adaptive immune system work?
transports antigen to lymphoid organ where it is recognized by B and T cells and then clonal expansion and differentiation to effector cells will remove agent.
All cells of the immune system arise from where?
the bone marrow
What happens if you wipe out the bone marrow in person?
that person no longer has an immune system
What kind of stem cells are hematopoietic stem cells?
What does it mean to be pluripotential?
ability to give rise to a large number of lineages of cells
What 2 cell lineages of the immune system do hematopoetic cells give rise to?
common lymphoid progenitor and common myelooid progenitor
Most of the myeloid cells active in (blank) immunity
Most of the lymphoid cells are active in (blank) immunity
(common myeloid/ common lymphoid) begin in the bone morrow and will travel into the blood and then into the tissues where they are long living and act as a surveillance for microbial insults.
What are the two most important types of common lymphoid cells?
B cells (one kind) and T cells (many flavors)
When stimulated to do so, what will B cells make? How will the do this?
by turning into plasma cells
What can NK cells do? Are they part of the adaptive or innate immunity?
What kind of cell is polymorphonuclear leukocyte (PMN)?
What are granulocytic myeloid lineage cells?
What will monocytes turn into?
What cells are important for orchestrating the adaptive immune response?
What cell kills antibody coated parasites through released of granule contents/
What cell controls the immune response to parasites?
What cell phagocytizes and kills microoganisms?
neutrophils and macrophages
What cell helps with platelet formation and wound repair?
What cell phagocytosizes and kills microorganisms and activates T cells and initiates the immune response?
What cell activates T cells and initiates adaptive immune response?
What cell allows for the expulsion of parasites from the body through the release of granules containing histamine and other active agents?
Which or more crucial T cells or B cells?
T cells beacuse you cant make B cells work without them
Where do T cells originate? where do they mature?
T or F, the immune system has a vascular system?
T, the lymphatic system
How do we get microorganims out of the tissue and into the blood to get rid of the microorganisms?
via the lymphatic system and lymph nodes
Is the spleen calm or reactive?
reactive, it is made predominantly of immune cells
What organ is the greatest blood flow of any organ in the body and deals with blood infection?
Is the spleen a central or peripheral lymphatic organ
What are the 2 central lymphatic organs?
bone marrow and thymus
what are the peripheral lymphoid tissues?
mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT)
adenoids and tonsils
What is the largest component of the immune system?
What does MALT do?
separates the microbial world form the internal body (represents 75% of the immune system)
What kind of immune response do T cells give?
cell-mediated immune response
What kind of immune response do B cells give?
What happens to your thymus after puberty?
it begins to atrophy
The architecture of the thymus helps to eliminate T cells that are unable to do what?
What is the function of the thymus?
Bring nascent T cells and allows them to mature and be sent out to the body
How does the architecture of the lymph node kill microorganisms?
lymph flow in, signals to dendritic cells which activate T cells which activate b cells and make some antibodies
Where will the adaptive immune response ensue?
in the spleen
What happens if you dont have a spleen?
you can live but your are highly susceptible to infection
How are most cases of congenital asplenia inherited?
autosomal dominant pattern
How can you find if someone doesnt have a spleen?
injection of radioactive colloidal gold
Whta defends the mucosal surfaces where the vast majority of pathogens gain acess to the body?
What two components are a part of MALT?
GALT and BALT
T or F
Your adaptive immune system does not mke T cells or B cells specific for microorganisms
T, it just makes an unlimited repetoire, some of which will recognize microorganisms
T or F, in adaptive immunity, the immune response gets better with time
Describe the recogntition mechanism of innate immunity
rapid response, fixed genome, limited specificity, constant reponse (no change)
Describe the recognition mechanism of adaptive immunity
slow response (days to weeks), variable (not genome encoded), a lot of highly selective specificites, and improvement during the response
Do they innate and adaptive immune systems work together?
Can you turn on an adaptive immune response without an innate response?
What kind of communication is ths:
a release of a mediator that travels a great distance to affect another cell
What kind of communication is this:
a release of a mediator to surrounding cells to create an affect
What kind of communication is this:
cells must be in the same location at the same time and must interact to create an affect (receptor-ligand interactions)
(blank) recognizes antigens presented by professional antigen presenting cells.
What is this prinicple:
huge repertoire of B cells and T cells (adaptive immune system) and the receptors are generated randomly in huge numbers that allows the body to identify microbial pathogens. There are cells that are also generated to recognize self. There is a process where self recognizing cells are eliminated so they wll not react to self and thus not damage your own body. The cell that recognizes a microbe will turn on and proliferate to be able to destroy microbe.
Where are self reactive cells eliminated?
how come, when you are infected by a microbe you were already infected by previously, you will not get as sick?
If you are exposed by an infectious agent, what would a normal response be? What about a deficient response?
If you are exposed to an innocuous substance, what would a normal response be? What about a deficient response?
If you are given a grafted organ, what is a normal response? What about a deficient response?
If you are given a self organ, what is a normal response? What about a deficient response?
If you have a tumor, what is a normal response? what about a deficient response?
The (blank) evolved to recognize and protect against infectious agents that enter our bodies through various portals and live extracellularly or intracellularly
Cells of the innate and adaptive immune system derive from hematopoietic precursors in the
Most of the cells involved in innate immunity, including the critically important phagocytic cells, derive from the (blank) cell lineage
(blank) on innate cells distinguish harmless self from from harmful non-self and induce inflammation
Genomically encoded pattern recognition receptors
Antigen-presenting cells, especially (blank) cells, initiate adaptive immune responses
(blank), which mature in the bone marrow or thymus, are the principal cells of adaptive immunity and generate non-genomically encoded pathogen recognition receptors of remarkable diversity
What are the central lymphoid tissues?
What are the peripheral lymphoid tissues?
The central lymphoid tissues include the bone marrow and thymus, and the peripheral lymphoid tissues include lymph nodes, spleen, and the mucosal-associated lymphoid tissue
What are the central priniciples of adaptive immunity
Self tolerance, clonal selection, and memory are the central principles of adaptive immunity
Lymphocytes activated by pathogens differentiate into (blank) or (blank) cells
effector or memory cells