Intro to musculoskeletal system Flashcards Preview

Human Anatomy > Intro to musculoskeletal system > Flashcards

Flashcards in Intro to musculoskeletal system Deck (76):
1

Functions of skeletal system

rigid-supportive frame work Protection of vital organs Mechanical basis of the movements at joints (skeletal muscle contraction) Ca2+, P3- storage Blood cell formation- bone marrow

2

axial functional part of the skeletal system

bones of the head, neck and trunk, skull, hyoid, vertebrae, ribs and sternum

3

appendicular functional part

bones of the limbs including pectoral and pelvic gridle

4

cranium

bones of the skull- part of the axial

5

Cartilage

avascular CT, ext. cellular fibers embedded in matrix, that contains cells localized in small cavities.

6

Cartilage type depends on the

amount and kind of ex. cell fiber in the matrix

7

Define Cartilage

Is resilient, flexible (semi-rigid) CT without BV.

8

Cartilage Classification based on the present level of collagen and elastic fibers

Hyaline- sufrace of articular joint

Elastic- ext ear

Fibrocartilage- intervertebral disk

9

Bone classification based on shape

Long

Short

Flat

irregular

sesamoid

10

sesamoid bones

small and round USUALLY within tendons

11

The largest sesamoid shaped bone

(hint- sesamoids are small and round bones usually embeded within tendons)

Patella

12

Bone

Name at least two functions

Calcified living CT with BVs

 

Functions: supporter and protector

Lever on the muscles required to act

Blood cell formation (bone marrow)

Ca and P reservoir

13

T/F

Cartilage contains blood vessels

False

Cartilage is a flexible CT with no Blood Vessel.

14

Bone growth takes many years and completes at age 20. Bone is derived from......... by two processes.

embryonic CT- Mesenchyme

15

16

Two general ossification processes from mesenchyme

Intramembranous

Endochondrial

17

The process in which mesenchyme ossifies

(Hint: Mesenchyme is an embryonic CT)

Intramembranous ossificaiton

18

The process in which ossification takes place following the invasion invasion by capillaries

Endochondrial ossification

19

The iniital step of endochondrial ossification

Involves  cartilage model formation from mesenchyme which later ossifies

20

bony bars of cancellous bone are called

trabeculae

A latticework of interconnecting plates

21

Spongy bone

aka trabecular bone

a interconnecting betwork of trabeculae which is lighter than cortical (compact) bone

22

A strong, dense, and tightly packed with a continous matrix (No Gaps) and found on the bone exterior

Compact (corical or cortex) bone

23

exterior part of the long bone

(long bone morphology)

Compact bone

24

Morphology of long bones

All the features

Compact bone (exterior)- aka cortical/cortex

spongy bone- aka trabecular/ cancellous

Diaphysis-main shaft of cortical

Epiphysis- enlarged ends (most spongy)

epiphyseal plates

articular cartilage

metaphysis

Medular cavity

endosteum

periosteum

 

25

Yellow marrow fills the

Diaphysis- the main shaft of the long bone

A hollow cylinder; The space inside is medullar cavity (marrow cavity)

26

Epiphysis is mostly composed of -------- and often contains the features required for

(epiphysis is the enlarged end of the long bones)

Mostly composed of spongy (trabecular, cancellous) bone and often have many features for the attachement of ligaments and bones

27

Red marrow fills the

spaces betweem the trabecular plates

28

Fat (yellow marrow) is found in ------- and red marrow is found in---------

yellow marrow---> medullary cavity

Red marrow ---> spaces between trabecular plates

29

Hyaline cartilage

Articular joints

(articular joints)covers the part of epiphysis that forms the joint surfaces

30

Part of epiphysis that covers the surface of the joints and is made up of hyaline cartilage

articular cartilage

31

The cartilage that seperates the epiphysis from the main shaft ( diaphysis) during growth

(hint: the cartilage is resorbed post growth and forms a line)

Epiphyseal plate- Known as the growth plate

32

Covers the entire bone except at joint surfaces

periosteom

33

A dense, irregular fibrous CT that covers the bone except at joint surface ( Since articular cartilage ,hyaline cartilage covers the joint surfaces)

Periosteum

34

Is an example of dense, irregular and fibrous CT

periosteum

35

Two major functions of the periosteum:

(dense, irregular, fibrous CT)

1- to anchor tendons and ligaments to the bone

2- involved in bone formation and repair

36

Bone homeostatis

Bone is an active tissue that constantly remodels with the ability to repair itself

For example, endosteum functions in bone growth and remodeling

37

------------ is involved in bone formation and repair, while ------- is involved in bone growth and remodeling.

periosteom, endosteum

38

A thin CT membrane lining the medullary cavity functions in

bone growth and remodeling

39

Endosteom

A thin CT membrane that lines the madullary cavity

(Medullary cavity is a hollow cylineder in the main shaft and contains yellow marrow- fat)

40

Vasculature of bones

1- nutrient arteries- via foramina in compact bone (shaft) for spongy bone and marrow

2- periosteal arteries- for most of compact bone of shaft

3- periarticular arterial plexus- for end of bones

all accompanied with veins

41

nutrient arteries

via foramina in compact bone of shaft for spongy bone and marrow

42

blood vessel for most of compact bone of shaft

periosteal arteries

43

blood vessels for spongy bone and marrow

nutrient arteries

44

Blood vessels for end of bones

periarticular arterial plexus

45

-------- are abundant in periosteum.

lymphatics

46

Pain carrying nerves of the bone

periosteal nerves

47

Blood flow through bone marrow is requlated via this nerve

vasomotor

48

49

What are the four pectoral muscles:

Pectoralis major

Pectoralis minor (remove pectoralis major)

subclavius(from th 1st rib to clavicle)

Serratus anterior

50

Simplified explanation of the I and O

Insetion 

Origin

Move from I (insertion) point to the point of origin

When that muscle contracted, in general the object is moved at the point of attachement (I) towards the point of origin

 

Simple definition

51

Three regions of pectoralis major

pectoralis major (1st of 4)

1- clavicular portion (head)- attached to clavicle

2- sternocostal part

3- abdominal part

52

diaphysis of long bone

main shaft of the cortical bone

a hollow cyliner- medullary cavity (marrow cavity) filled with yellow marrow (fat)

53

epiphysis

the enlarged ends of the bone

mostly spondy bone

features for attachment of ligaments and tendons

space between trabeculae are filled with red marrow

54

The main shaft of corticle bone

diaphysis

55

contains yellow marrow

medullary cavity of diaphysis

56

part of epiphysis that form the joint surface covered with hyaline cartilage

articular cartilage

57

during growth the epiphysis and diaphysis are seperated by

growth plate- a cartilage plate

58

A thin CT lining the medullary cavity and functions in bone growth and remodelling

endosteum

59

tough membrane of dense, irregular, fibrous CT the covers the entire bone except at joint surfaces

periosteom

60

periosteum function

anchoring ligaments and tendons to the bone

(tough memrabe of dence, irregular, fibrous CT)

bone formation and repair

61

blood supply for most of compact bone of chaft

periosteal arteries

62

blood supply for end of bones

periarticular arterial plexus

63

lymphatics abundant in -------- of long bones.

periosteum

64

blood vessel for spsondy bone and marrow

nutrient arteries

65

nurtient arteries pass via ------- in compact bone of shaft

foramina

66

name blood vessels of bones

nutrient arteries (foramina- spongy and marrow)

periosteol arteries (compact)

Periarticular arterial plexus (end of bones)

67

nerves of bones

periosteal nerve- carry pain

vasomotor nerve- regulate blood flow through bone marrow

68

functional classification of joints based on ROM

synarthrosis- no ROM

amphiarthrosis- slight ROM- no articular cavity- no synovial fluid

diarthrosis- freely moving

69

fibrous joints

suture

gomphosis

syndesmosis ( interosseous ligament), SI joint

70

suture

synarthrotic

dense CT- flat bones of skull- structural ligaments

71

gomphosis

only example- teeth

synarthrotic

72

sysndesmoses

Fibrous joint

amphiarthroticbones bound together by fibrous CT that forms an interosseous ligament

e.g. radius-ulna, distall tibia-fibula and SI joint

73

cartilaginous joints

Synchondrosis (temporary)

Sumphosis (permenant)

74

Synchondrosis

cartilaginous joint

temporary synarthrotic

e.g. growth plate

75

symphysis

cartilagenous joint (structural classification)

Permenant

amphiarthrotic

Bones connected by a pad of fibrocartilage

e.g. pubic symphosis, intervertebral discs

76

meniscus and labrum are made of 

fibrocartilage