Intro to Ophthalmology Lecture Powerpoint Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Intro to Ophthalmology Lecture Powerpoint Deck (35):
1

Amaurosis fugax

Transient, acute onset monocular blindness, often described as a "curtain" coming down over eye, high 80% risk of stroke occurring within next 72 hours and thus requires urgent treatment

2

Giant cell arteritis/temporal cell arteritis

Emergency in patients usually over 60 with ipsalateral

3

Central vein occlusion

fuck

4

Scintillating scotoma

Classically associated symptom where patient experiences bilateral flashing visual disturbances seen with migraines due to chemical or vascular interruption of signals (often a migraine causes vasospasm and occlusion of blood flow to the visual cortex causing them)

5

Arcus abnormality (senilus)

Condition causing white ring appearance around iris associated with old age very common in patients of asian heritage, despite unclear association with cardiovascular disease it is linked to deposition of lipids and thus warrants a lipid panel to assess hypercholesterolemia (esp. in patients under 50)

6

Kayser fleischer rings/Wilson's disease

Copper deposition in a ring around the iris often associated with resting tremors referred for chelation to remove, autosomal recessive disease mapped to chromosome 13 autosomal recessive

7

Pterygium

Nicknamed surfers eye, a condition that causes noncancerous growth of the conjunctiva in a wedge shape that will eventually cover the pupil, common in people who spend time outdoors and requires surgical removal

8

Pinguecula

Yellowish patch or growth on the conjunctiva over the sclera that is a deposit of fat, protein, or calcium, can be associated with pterygium but does not occlude vision and is completely benign.

9

Xanthelasma

Cholesterol buildup causing a plaque or growth that occurs on the eyelid or extensor surfaces of extremities that upon observation indicates a lipid panel for monitoring

10

Ectropion vs Entropion

Entropion eye lid is rolled inward, ectropion is an eyelid rolled outward

11

Exophthalmos

Condition often due to hyperthyroidism (often brought on by graves disease) causing bulging of eyes bilaterally

12

Chalazion

2ndary to or progression of hordeolum, a mass formed in infected (styed) memobian gland

13

Dacroadenitis and what 2 big organisms can be a source of this

lacrimal gland infection by bacterial (most often, typically staph), fungal, or viral (MUMPS is big one for this)

14

Differentiating between conjunctivitis and Uveitis (3 ways)

-Conjunctivits has preserved visual acuity, and uveitis causes loss of visual acuity
-Conjunctivitis is usually infectious in origin while uveitis is often autoimmune
-Uveitis is more diffuse redness while conjunctivitis affects both bulbar and palpebral conjunctiva

15

Glaucoma

Second most common cause of blindness from damage to optic nerve due to increased pressure in eye's anterior chamber, either near-sighteded (open angle) or farsighted (closed angle)

16

Risk factors of glaucoma (6)

-older than 40
-African american
-familial inheritance
-Diabetes
-High blood pressure
-long term use of corticosteroids

17

Acute closed angle glaucoma (and 2 ways its treated)

Emergency form of glaucoma requiring pharmacologic treatment or laser trabeculoplasty, presents with acute onset pain, blurred vision, nausea and vomiting, halos, and elevated intraocular pressure

18

A normal cup to disk ratio is what according to Walt and what according to Lucas?

.3, 1:2

19

Subconjunctival hemorrhage

Often spontaneous precipitated by cough or sneeze that results in blood accumulation beneath the conjunctiva, is asymptomatic and heals on own as long as patient's coaguability and BP are normal

20

Hyphema

blood accumulation in anterior chamber usually due to trauma requiring coag studies and referral to ophthalmology

21

Amblyopia

Monocular blindness due to failure of visual cortex to develop due to lack of visual input stimulation derived from children with defect in lens left uncorrected requiring patching of the good eye

22

Ishihara test

Color vision test of all colors using 38 plates used in military/industry/professions when slight variations in shade make a difference

23

DOT physical color test

Simple test that requires differentiation between red, yellow, and green

24

Ipsalateral monocular vision loss

Caused by a lesion at the optic nerve, complete sight loss in one eye

25

Bitemporal hemianopia

Caused by a lesion at the optic chiasm (both temporal visual fields of the patient are located more medially, and cross at the optic chiasm)

26

Ipsalateral nasal hemianoptia

A lesion at the uncrossed optic nerve fibers causing nasal visual field half blindness in one eye due to light entering to the lateral retina and traveling without crossing down the optic nerve, tract, and chiasm but getting cut off somewhere in there

27

Contralateral homonymous hemianoptia

Lesion at optic tract bisecting it completely, removing the nasal view of one eye and temporal view of the other with the lesion being on the side of the tract in the body that can still see

28

Contralateral homonymous hemianoptia with macular sparing

Lesion at the optic tract bisecting it (typically deeper in the lateral geniculate nuclei) causing lack of nasal view of one eye and temporal view of other eye with lesion being on side of the tract in the body that can still see while the macula is spared

29

Ipsalateral central scotoma

Lesion at the eye at a fixed point creating a blind spot

30

Ipsalateral horizontal defect

Vascular occlusion of part of the eye resulting in 1 sided blindness either superiorally or inferiorally, with the occlusion being located at the point that is preserved in visual field

31

Any condition that is monocular in nature indicates...
Binocular indicates...

...condition is anterior to the optic chiasm (anterior circulation)
...condition is posterior to the optic chiasm and much deeper in the brain (geniculate nuclei or visual cortex) (posterior circulation)

32

Proptosis and what causes monocular proptosis

Bulging out of eye, exophthalmos typically refers to bilateral proptosis brought on by Graves disease

Monocular proptosis could occur due to tumor or infection

33

Hordeolum

Classic stye, affects eyelash which is part of memobian glands that becomes occluded and infected often with a staph infection

34

Open angle glaucoma

Occurs when drainage canals of schlemm become plugged in the anterior chamber that has insidious onset typically after 50 with visual symptoms only in late disease, avoided by avid screening of patients

35

Cup to disk ratio

A measure of % of optic disk (the exit point of all vessels and nerves in the retina from the eye) covered by cup (white center of the disk)