Flashcards in Introduction Deck (12):
What is the definition of hypothesis?
A statement which can be tested to see if it's true.
What is a research hypothesis?
What is an alternate hypothesis?
What is a null hypothesis?
=a general prediction
E.g eating carrots improves eyesight
=enough detail to carry out research, components are operationalised
E.g there will be a difference in eyesight depending on how many carrots a person eats
=a hypothesis which predicts no difference or correlation
E.g there will be no difference....
What is the difference between a two-tailed and a one-tailed hypothesis?
Two-tailed= option of 2 directions
E.g there will be a difference
One-tailed= used previous results to suggest this direction
E.g there will be an increase
What is the definition of validity?
The extent to which a statement is true.
What is the difference between internal and external validity?
Internal= validity inside study
External= how far the results can be generalised beyond the study
What is face (surface) validity?
The extent to which a measure appears to measure what it is supposed to.
What is population validity?
The extent to which the findings can be generalised to other populations.
What is ecological validity?
The extent to which the findings can be generalised beyond the present situation.
What are the 4 things which affect validity?
1. Demand characteristics
PPs behaviour changes as try to make sense of study
2. Social desirability
Respondent gives an answer that is not necessarily true but sounds good
3. Experimenter bias
Experimenters expectations or design of study can influence the results
4. Observer bias
Presence of an observer changes behaviour of PPs
What is concurrent validity?
New measure findings match old measure findings.
What is the difference between internal and external reliability?
Internal= how consistently a method measures within itself
External= how consistently a method measures over time when repeated