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Flashcards in Introduction Deck (14):
1

What are the functions of the respiratory system?

1- gas exchange
2-acid- base regulation
3-protection
4-communication through speech

2

Why is gas exchange important?

It provides 02 which is required to produce ATP as a source of energy

3

External respiration stages

1- Between air and lungs
2-Between Lungs and blood: O2 enters blood, C02 exits
3-Between Blood and tissues:
02 enters tissues, C02 exits

4

components of the respirator system + brief description

1-Nose: contains cilia which remove particles
2-Pharnyx
3-Epiglottis: flap which covers trachea when food enters
4-Larnyx: contains voice cords
5-Trachea
6-Bronchus
7-Lungs

1-4 are part of upper respiratory
5-7 are part of lower respiratory
Larnyx-Bronchus are surrounded by rings of cartilage for support + protection
Bronchioles to lungs no cartilage
Alveoli- site of gas exchange

5

Gas exchange and diameter

Decreasing diameter from nose to alveoli
The greater the diameter, the less resistance.
Muscle of alveoli:
contraction- decreases diameter and increases resistance
Relaxes- increases diameter- reduces resistance
-Trachea- bronchioles= conducting zone
-bronchioles- alveoli=respiratory zone

6

Tissue- function

Lining of respiratory tract:
-cilia
-blood vessels
-lymph nodes
-macrophages

Alveoli:
-Loss of cilia
-Becomes more squamous
-Loss of mucous
-surrounded by elastic fibres
-surrounded by many capillaries
-surrounded by macrophages
-thin walls
-Pneumocytes:
type 1- 97%/ squamous epithelium- site of gas exchange
type 2- reduces surface tension/ reduces work of breathing/ phospholipids and proteins

7

Why does the Right lung have and increased angle?

Site where foreign bodies lodge

8

How do the respiratory and and the cardiovascular system work together?

Increase in energy demand leads to:
1- increased rate of breathing: more 02 consumed, more C02 produced
2- Increased blood flow rate so nutrients can be delivered to needing cells

9

What is the average rate of 02/CO2 consumption and rate of breathing?

At a steady state:
-250ml 02 consumed
-200 ml C02 produced
-10/20 breaths per min at rest
-40-45 breaths per min during exercise

10

What does the mucous layer of the RT do

-Traps particles
-moistens air
-increases SA for action of cilia
-contains goblet cells
-contains sub-epithelium glands

11

characters of the cartilage rings

Semi-rigid
C shaped

12

What maintains the patency (unobstructed pathways) of the bronchioles

physical forces

13

what type of epithelium is found in the respiratory tract?

Epithelium is ciliated, columnar, pseudo stratified

14

Anatomical dead space

The air found in lung structure which are not the alveoli.
The alveoli are the only point of gas exchange- this is because they have the thinnest walls
Cannot be used in alveolar ventilation