Flashcards in Introduction Deck (14):
What are the functions of the respiratory system?
1- gas exchange
2-acid- base regulation
4-communication through speech
Why is gas exchange important?
It provides 02 which is required to produce ATP as a source of energy
External respiration stages
1- Between air and lungs
2-Between Lungs and blood: O2 enters blood, C02 exits
3-Between Blood and tissues:
02 enters tissues, C02 exits
components of the respirator system + brief description
1-Nose: contains cilia which remove particles
3-Epiglottis: flap which covers trachea when food enters
4-Larnyx: contains voice cords
1-4 are part of upper respiratory
5-7 are part of lower respiratory
Larnyx-Bronchus are surrounded by rings of cartilage for support + protection
Bronchioles to lungs no cartilage
Alveoli- site of gas exchange
Gas exchange and diameter
Decreasing diameter from nose to alveoli
The greater the diameter, the less resistance.
Muscle of alveoli:
contraction- decreases diameter and increases resistance
Relaxes- increases diameter- reduces resistance
-Trachea- bronchioles= conducting zone
-bronchioles- alveoli=respiratory zone
Lining of respiratory tract:
-Loss of cilia
-Becomes more squamous
-Loss of mucous
-surrounded by elastic fibres
-surrounded by many capillaries
-surrounded by macrophages
type 1- 97%/ squamous epithelium- site of gas exchange
type 2- reduces surface tension/ reduces work of breathing/ phospholipids and proteins
Why does the Right lung have and increased angle?
Site where foreign bodies lodge
How do the respiratory and and the cardiovascular system work together?
Increase in energy demand leads to:
1- increased rate of breathing: more 02 consumed, more C02 produced
2- Increased blood flow rate so nutrients can be delivered to needing cells
What is the average rate of 02/CO2 consumption and rate of breathing?
At a steady state:
-250ml 02 consumed
-200 ml C02 produced
-10/20 breaths per min at rest
-40-45 breaths per min during exercise
What does the mucous layer of the RT do
-increases SA for action of cilia
-contains goblet cells
-contains sub-epithelium glands
characters of the cartilage rings
What maintains the patency (unobstructed pathways) of the bronchioles
what type of epithelium is found in the respiratory tract?
Epithelium is ciliated, columnar, pseudo stratified