Toxicology is defined as
The science of toxicants, their physical properties, sources, toxicity, toxicokinetics, MOA, clinical signs, lesions (post-mortem), lab diagnosis, diagnosis, DDx, and treatment (or prevention) of diseases caused by toxicants
Most common poisoning in dogs?
Human food and drugs (legal and illegal).
Diagnosis and Treatment
Main aspects of clinical Tox
Drugs can be poisons and poisons can be drugs.... The difference is
The dose (Dose or amount of exposure)
Drugs and Poisons are....
Xenobiotics (foreign chemicals that the body does not produce)
Any substance (gas, liquid, solid) when applied or introduced into the body that may interfere with life processes or biological functions of the cells of the animals
Poison (Toxicant) - can be used interchangeably
Plant Animals (venom, insect sting, fish toxin) Minerals (lead, zinc) Fungi or bacteria (mycotoxin)
Organophosphate and chlorinated hydrocarbon insecticides, organic herbicides are...
BIOTOXIN!! Poison from a biologic process (zootoxins or animal toxins, phytotoxins or plant toxins, bacterial toxins and mycotoxins)
Can be living or non-living
Deleterious or undesirable effects of poisons
Disease caused by exposure to a poison
Toxicosis (Poisoning or intoxication)
Amount of a poison that under certain circumstances will cause toxic effects
Toxicity in mammals is
LD50 Mg/kg body weight
Toxicity in Birds....
LC50 (lethal concentration) Mg/kg FEED
Toxicity in Fish....
LC50 Mg/liter WATER
Effect of a single dose or multiple doses during a 24 hour period
Effect produced by daily exposure from one day to 30 days
Effect of exposure from 30 days to 90 days
Effect produced by daily exposure for a period of 3 months or more
Ratio between acute LD50 and chronic LD50
Toxicity values are influenced by several factors...
Species, breed, age, individual, sex, dosage of a poison, duration of exposure and other factors
= 1mg/kg or less
> 1-50 mg/kg
> 50 - 500 mg/kg
> 0.5 - 5 g/kg
> 5-15 g/kg
Highest NonToxic Dose (HNTD)
The highest or largest dose which does not result in undesirable or toxic alterations (clinical, hematologic, biochemical, or pathologic alterations)
This is similar to the highest nontoxic dose
Maximum Tolerated Dose Or Minimal Toxic Dose (MTD)