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1

Toxicology is defined as

The science of toxicants, their physical properties, sources, toxicity, toxicokinetics, MOA, clinical signs, lesions (post-mortem), lab diagnosis, diagnosis, DDx, and treatment (or prevention) of diseases caused by toxicants

2

Most common poisoning in dogs?

Human food and drugs (legal and illegal).

3

Diagnosis and Treatment

Main aspects of clinical Tox

4

Drugs can be poisons and poisons can be drugs.... The difference is

The dose (Dose or amount of exposure)

5

Drugs and Poisons are....

Xenobiotics (foreign chemicals that the body does not produce)

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Any substance (gas, liquid, solid) when applied or introduced into the body that may interfere with life processes or biological functions of the cells of the animals

Poison (Toxicant) - can be used interchangeably

7

Natural Poisons

Plant Animals (venom, insect sting, fish toxin) Minerals (lead, zinc) Fungi or bacteria (mycotoxin)

8

Organophosphate and chlorinated hydrocarbon insecticides, organic herbicides are...

Synthetic Poisons

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Toxin

BIOTOXIN!! Poison from a biologic process (zootoxins or animal toxins, phytotoxins or plant toxins, bacterial toxins and mycotoxins)

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Toxicant

Can be living or non-living

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Deleterious or undesirable effects of poisons

Toxic

12

Disease caused by exposure to a poison

Toxicosis (Poisoning or intoxication)

13

Toxicity

Amount of a poison that under certain circumstances will cause toxic effects

14

Toxicity in mammals is

LD50 Mg/kg body weight

15

Toxicity in Birds....

LC50 (lethal concentration) Mg/kg FEED

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Toxicity in Fish....

LC50 Mg/liter WATER

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Effect of a single dose or multiple doses during a 24 hour period

Acute Toxicity

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Effect produced by daily exposure from one day to 30 days

Subacute Toxicity

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Effect of exposure from 30 days to 90 days

Subchronic Toxicity

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Effect produced by daily exposure for a period of 3 months or more

Chronic Toxicity

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Chronocity Factor

Ratio between acute LD50 and chronic LD50

22

Toxicity values are influenced by several factors...

Species, breed, age, individual, sex, dosage of a poison, duration of exposure and other factors

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Extremely Toxic

= 1mg/kg or less

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Highly Toxic

> 1-50 mg/kg

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Moderately Toxic

> 50 - 500 mg/kg

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Slightly Toxic

> 0.5 - 5 g/kg

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Practically Nontoxic

> 5-15 g/kg

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Relatively Harmless

>15g/kg

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Highest NonToxic Dose (HNTD)

The highest or largest dose which does not result in undesirable or toxic alterations (clinical, hematologic, biochemical, or pathologic alterations)

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This is similar to the highest nontoxic dose

Maximum Tolerated Dose Or Minimal Toxic Dose (MTD)