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Flashcards in Introduction to Clinical Sciences Deck (18):
1

What is Inflammation?

the local physiological response to tissue injury.

2

Why is inflammation beneficial?

It destroys invading microorganisms, and walls off abscess cavities
=> PREVENTION of spread of disease

3

Why is inflammation detrimental?

a) it can cause disease eg. abscesses can cause compression of structures
b) tissue destruction and alteration of function with fibrosis

4

What is ACUTE inflammation?

The initial and often transient series of tissue reactions in response to injury

5

What is CHRONIC inflammation?

The subsequent and often prolonged tissue reaction following the initial response, involving a progressive change in cell types at the site of infection

6

What are the steps of acute inflammation?

1. Initial reaction of tissue to injury
2. Vascular Component - dilation of vessels
3. Exudative Component - vascular leakage of exudate
4. Neutrophil Polymorph Activity
5. Outcome

7

What is the diagnostic feature of acute inflammation?

The presence of neutrophil polymorphs

8

What are the outcomes of acute inflammation?

Resolution,
Suppuration (eg. abscess),
Organisation,
Progression to chronic inflammation

9

Causes of acute inflammation

1. Microbial Infections
2. Hypersensitivity Reaction
3. Physical Agents
4. Chemicals
5. Bacterial Toxins
6. Tissue Necrosis

10

How does a viral infection cause acute inflammation?

It leads to individual cell death by cell multiplication.

11

How do bacteria cause acute inflammation?

They release exotoxins which initiate inflammation

12

Macroscopic Appearances of AI
? Why ?

- Rubor = REDNESS
- Calor = HEAT
- Tumour = SWELLING
- Dolor = PAIN
- Loss of function

13

What are the main cell types in chronic Inflammation?

Lymphocytes
Plasma Cells
Macrophages

14

What are the 4 causes of chronic inflammation?

1. Primary Chronic Inflammation
2. Progression from Acute Inflammation
3. Transplant Rejection
4. Recurrent Cycles of Acute Inflammation

15

What results in primary chronic inflammation?

- resistance of an infective agent to phagocytosis
- endogenous/exogenous material
- some autoimmune diseases
- some diseases of unknown aetiology
- primary granulomatous diseases

16

What results in progression from acute inflammation?

(most commonly from supurative AI)
- non-removal of agent
- organisation of tissue leading to change in cell type
- pus in abscess cavity is unable to drain leading to the formation of a fibrous wall, which forms fibrous scar tissue.
- indigestible material

17

What are macroscopic appearances of chronic inflammation?

- Chronic Ulcers
- Chronic Abscess Cavities
- Thickening of the Walls of Hollow Viscous
- Granulomatous Inflammation
- Fibrosis

18

What are microscopic features of chronic inflammation?

- Cellular infiltrate
- some macrophages becoming multinuclear giant cells
- production of new fibrous tissue
- evidence of continued destruction of tissue at the same time as regeneration and repair
- tissue necrosis