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Flashcards in Introduction to haematology Deck (46)
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1

What is haematopoiesis?

- The physiological developmental process that gives rise to the cellular components of blood

- A single multipotent haemopoietic stem cell can divide and differentiate to form different cell lineages that will populate the blood

2

What is a haemopoietic stem cell?

- Differentiation potential for all lineages
- High proliferative potential
- Long term activity throughout the lifespan of the individual
- Self renewal

3

What is symmetric self-renewal?

Increase stem cell pool – NO generation of differentiated progeny

4

What is asymmetric self-renewal?

Maintain stem cell pool – generation of differentiate progeny.

5

What is lack of self-renewal?

Deplete stem cell pool – generation of ONLY differentiated progeny

OR

Maintain stem cell pool – NO differentiated progeny

6

What are the two haemopoietic lineages?

- Myeloid
- Lymphoid

7

At what point in human development does heamopoiesis start?

Day 27

8

Where does heamopoiesis start?

In the aorta-gonado-mesonephros region,
expands rapidly at day 35, then disappear at day 40.

9

Why does the aorta-gonado-mesonephros region disappear?

This disappearance correlates with the migration of these hematopoietic stem cells to the foetal liver, which becomes the subsequent site of haemopoiesis.

10

What are the features of erythrocytes?

Bi-concave discs, 7.5 µM diameter

11

What is the lifespan of an erythrocyte?

120 days

12

What is anaemia?

Reduced erythrocytes

13

What is polycythaemia?

Abnormally raised erythrocytes

14

What is relative polycythaemia?

Plasma volume is reduced so erythrocytes appear raised

15

What are granulocytes?

Have cytoplasmic granules (neutrophils, eosinophils, basophils)

16

What is the function of neutrophils?

Phagocytes

17

What is neutrophilia?

Increased numbers of neutrophils

18

Why might neutrophil levels be increased?

Bacterial infection and inflammation

19

What is the lifespan of neutrophils?

A few hours

20

What is neutropenia?

Decreased numbers of neutrophils

21

Why would eosinophil levels be increased?

- Parasitic infection
- Allergies

22

Why might basophil levels be increased?

CML

23

What are monocytes?

- Phagocytic & antigen-presenting cells

- Migrate to tissues & are then identified as “macrophages” or “histiocytes”
e.g. Kupffer cells in liver
e.g. Langerhans cells in skin

24

What is monocytosis and why might it occur?

Increased numbers of monocytes. Can happen in TB.

25

What is the function of NK cells?

- Recognise “non-self”
e.g. Cells, viruses

- Large granular lymphocytes

26

What are B-lymphocytes?

- Adaptive immune system
- rearrange the immunoglobulin genes to enable antigen specific antibody production
- humoral immunity

27

What are T-lymphocytes?

- Adaptive immune system
- rearrange the T-cell antigen receptor
- cell-mediated immunity
- target specific cytotoxicity
- Interact with B cells, macrophages
- Regulate immune responses

28

What is lymphocytosis and why might it occur?

Increased numbers of lymphocytes.

e.g. atypical lymphocytes of glandular fever (infectious mononucleosis)
e.g. Chronic lymphocytic leukaemia

29

What is lymphopenia and why might it occur?

Decreased numbers of lymphocytes.

e.g. post bone marrow transplant

30

What is plasmocytosis and why might it occur?

Increased numbers of plasma cells

e.g. infection, myeloma

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