Introduction to Hematological Malignancies Flashcards Preview

Blood and Lymph Unit 2 > Introduction to Hematological Malignancies > Flashcards

Flashcards in Introduction to Hematological Malignancies Deck (29):
1

What are clonal populations?

Malignant cells arising from a transformed cell of marrow derivation

2

Define: Leukemia

A malinancy of hematopoietic cells, where the chief manifestation is involvement of the blood and marrow

3

Define: Lymphoma

A malignancy of hematopoietic cells, derived from lymphocytes or their precursors, which presents primarily as a solid mass

4

What is an extramedullary myeloid tumor?

A malignancy of hematopoietic cells, derived from myeloid cells or their precursors, which present primarily as a solid mass

5

What is the difference between chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) and small lymphocytic lymphoma (SLL)?

They are the same basic biologic disease, the difference is between whether the disease is primarily involving the blood and marrow (CLL) or primarily present as enlarged lymph nodes due to solid growth (SLL)

6

What does grade mean in hematological diseases?

High grade- being more aggressive/ more rapidly gowiing.

Low grade- Less aggressive/ slower growing

7

What type of hematopoietic malignancy is classified as a high or low grade?

Lymphomas

8

Describe acute vs. chronic leukemia.

Acute- Used for high grade leukemias

Chronic- Used for low grade leukemias

9

What type of hematopoietic malignancy is classified as acute or chronic?

Leukemias

10

True or False:
All hematopoietic neoplasms are regarded to be malignancies.

True

11

What chromosomal translocation is associated with CML?

t(9;22)

12

Name three viruses associated with lymphomas.

1. Epstein-Barr (EBV)
2. Human T cell leukemia virus-1 (HTLV-1)
3. Kaposi sarcoma herpesvirus/ Human herpesvirus-8 (KSV/HHV-8)

13

What virus can play a role in the genesis of classical Hodgkin lymphoma, and some cases of Burkitt lymphoma, and some cases of B cell non-Hodgkin lymphomas?

Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)

14

What virus can play a role in the genesis of adult T cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATLL)?

Human T cell leukemia virus-1 (HTLV-1)

15

What virus can play a role in the genesis of primary effusion lymphoma?

Kaposi sarcoma herpesvirus/ Human herpesvirus-8 (KSV/HHV-8)

16

Name two predisposing factors for hematopoietic malignancies.

1. Inherited immunodeficiencies and inherited conditions of genomic instability (e.g. ataxia-telangiectasia)

2. Radiation exposure and certain chemotherapies

17

What arises from mature or immature members of the granulocytic, monocytic, erythroid, megakeryocytic, and mast cell lineages?

Myeloid malignancies

18

What arises from mature or immature members of the B cell, T cell, and NK cell lineages?

Lymphoid malignancies

19

Name three tools for evaluating acute leukemia.

1. Morphology
2. Immunophenotyping
3. Immunohistochemistry

20

What is myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS)?

Clonal population derived from a neoplastic hematopoietic stem cells that take over the marrow, and is not capable of making normal blood cells in one or more lineages

21

How does MDS present?

Low peripheral blood cell count

22

Some people say that MDS is a precursor for AML, some don't. Why the discrepancy?

Many people die before they ever get AML

23

Why do people with MDS die?

Failure of the marrow to make normal blood cells

24

What is myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs)?

Neoplastic clonal proliferations of the marrow where the clone makes normal functioning blood cells, one or multiple lineages, but makes too man of them.

25

How are MPNs classified?

Cytogenetic abnormality
Types of blood cell(s) being overproduced

26

What types of cells are found in classical Hodgkin lymphoma (CHL)?

-Hodgkin-Reed Sternberg (HRS) cells

27

What are Hodgkin-Reed Sternberg (HRS) cells derived from?

B cells

28

What term is used for any malignancy derived from mature B cells (excluding CHL or plasma cell neoplasms), T cells, or NK cells?

Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma

29

MGUS, plasmacytoma, and multiple myeloma are all considered what type of neoplasm?

Plasma cell neoplasm